Kenetik af kemisk reaktion | METTLER TOLEDO
Organic Synthesis Applications

Kenetik af kemisk reaktion

Screening og optimering af katalyse, hydrogenering, polymersyntese og andre reaktive kemiske synteser

Syntetisk organisk kemi
Forbedring af katalysatorydeevne af tandem-hydroformylation/hydrogenering
Reaktionsovervågning i realtid
Design af eksperimenter (DoE) til optimerede reaktionsbetingelser
Arbejdsstationer til organisk syntese
Syntetisering af gennembrud for molekyler
Meget reaktiv kemi

Applikationer

Applikation af syntetisk organisk kemi

Control Residual Isocyanate
Process Analytical Technology for Continuous Measurement of NCO

Isocyanates are critical building blocks for high performance polyurethane-based polymers that make up coatings, foams, adhesives, elastomers, and insulation. Concerns over exposure to residual isocyanates led to new limits for residual isocyanates in new products. Traditional analytical methods for measuring the residual isocyanate (NCO) concentration using offline sampling and analysis raise concerns. In situ monitoring with process analytical technology addresses these challenges and enables manufacturers and formulators to ensure that product quality specifications, personnel safety, and environmental regulations are met.

Measuring Polymerization Reactions
Methods and Techniques to Develop Synthetic Polymer Chemistry

Measuring and understanding polymerization reactions, mechanisms, kinetics, reactivity ratios, and activation energies lead researchers to employ in situ infrared spectroscopy as a routine technique to gain comprehensive, information-rich data that is used to advance research in a shorter time frame.

Impurity Profiling of Chemical Reactions
Automated Drug Development Strategies for Chemists

Knowledge of impurity kinetics and mechanism of formation is important in determining reaction end-point in chemical and process development studies. Accurate, reproducible, and representative reactions samples are necessary for these studies.

Kemisk reaktionskinetik
Undersøg kemiske reaktionshastigheder og mål kinetik inline

In situ-kemiske reaktionskinetikundersøgelser giver en forbedret forståelse af reaktionsmekanismen og vejen ved at tilvejebringe koncentrationsafhængighed af reagerende komponenter i realtid. Kontinuerlige data i løbet af en reaktion muliggør beregning af hastighedslove med færre eksperimenter på grund af den omfattende karakter af dataene.

Flow Chemistry
Improve Safety, Reduce Cycle Time, Increase Quality and Yield

Continuous flow chemistry opens options with exothermic synthetic steps that are not possible in batch reactors, and new developments in flow reactor design provide alternatives for reactions that are mixing limited in batch reactors. This can often result in better product quality and higher yield.  When coupled with Process Analytical Technology (PAT), flow chemistry allows for rapid analysis, optimization, and scale-up of a chemical reaction.

Grignard Reaction Mechanisms
Understand and Control Exothermic Events

Grignard reactions are one of the most important reaction classes in organic chemistry. Grignard reactions are useful for forming carbon-carbon bonds. Grignard reactions form alcohols from ketones and aldehydes, as well as react with other chemicals to form a myriad of useful compounds. Grignard reactions are performed using a Grignard reagent, which is typically a alkyl-, aryl- or vinyl- organomagnesium halide compound. To ensure optimization and safety of Grignard reactions in research, development and production, in situ monitoring and understanding reaction heat flow is important.

Hydrogenation Reactions
Safe Reaction Monitoring at Elevated Temperature and Pressure

Hydrogenation reactions are used in the manufacturing of both bulk and fine chemicals for reducing multiple bonds to single bonds. Catalysts are typically used to promote these reactions and reaction temperature, pressure, substrate loading, catalyst loading, and agitation rate all effect hydrogen gas uptake and overall reaction performance. Thorough understanding of this energetic reaction is important and PAT technology in support of HPLC analysis ensure safe, optimized and well-characterized chemistry.

Highly Reactive Chemistries
Scale-Up and Optimize Highly Reactive Chemistries

Highly reactive chemistry is a terminology used to describe chemical reactions that are particularly challenging to handle and develop due to the potentially hazardous and/or energetic nature of the reactants, intermediates and products that are present during synthesis. These chemistries often involve highly exothermic reactions which require specialized equipment or extreme operating conditions (such as low temperature) to ensure adequate control. Ensuring safe operating conditions, minimizing human exposure, and gaining the maximum amount of information from each experiment are key factors in successfully designing and scaling-up highly reactive chemistries.

High Pressure Reactions
Understand and Characterize High Pressure Reactions Under Challenging Sampling Conditions

Many processes require reactions to be run under high pressure. Working under pressure is challenging and collecting samples for offline analysis is difficult and time consuming. A change in pressure could affect reaction rate, conversion and mechanism as well as other process parameters plus sensitivity to oxygen, water, and associated safety issues are common problems.

Hydroformylation or Oxo Synthesis/Process
Understand Catalyst Activity

Hydroformylation, or oxo synthesis/process, is important for the production of olefins to aldehydes and aldehydes from alkenes. Hydroformylation reactions are performed at high pressure and can be challenging to sample due to the extreme reaction conditions, as well as the toxic, flammable, and reactive raw materials and reagents.

katalyserede reaktioner
Fremskynd kemiske reaktioner med en katalysator

synthesis reactions
Providing Important Molecules for Research, Industry, and Commerce

One of the four major classes of chemical reactions, synthesis reactions are represented by important examples in organic synthesis, catalyzed chemistry, polymerizations and inorganic/organometallic chemistry. In the simplest case, a synthesis reaction occurs when two molecules combine to form a third, more complex product molecule. Often, synthesis reactions are more complex and require a thorough understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of the underlying chemistry, as well as carefully controlled reaction conditions.

Design of Experiments (DoE)
A Statistical Approach to Reaction Optimization

Design of Experiments (DoE) requires experiments to be conducted under well-controlled and reproducible conditions in chemical process optimization. Chemical synthesis reactors are designed to perform DoE investigations ensuring high quality data.

Understand the structure of individual molecules and composition of molecular mixtures

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy For Real-Time Monitoring Of Chemical Reactions

Reaction Mechanism Pathway
Fundamental Understanding of Chemical Reactions and Factors Affecting Them

Reaction mechanisms describe the successive steps at the molecular level that take place in a chemical reaction. Reaction mechanisms cannot be proven, but rather postulated based on empirical experimentation and deduction. In situ FTIR spectroscopy provides information to support reaction mechanisms hypotheses.

Organometallic Synthesis
Understanding and Control of Organometallic Compounds

Organometallic Synthesis, or Organometallic Chemistry, refers to the process of creating organometallic compounds, and is among the most researched areas in chemistry. Organometallic compounds are frequently used in fine chemical syntheses and to catalyze reactions. In situ Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are among the most powerful analytical methods for the study of organometallic compounds and syntheses.

Ensure Yield, Purity, and Cost Objectives

Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical process by which nucleotides are specifically linked to form a desired sequenced product. The repetitive cyclic nature of the synthesis used in producing these biopolymers requires careful control of reaction variables, as well as step-wise reaction tracking and purity assurance to ensure that the desired sequence is attained. PAT methodology supports the development and production of these important biomolecules.

For Key Reactions in Organic Chemistry

Alkylation is the process by when an alkyl group is added to a substrate molecule. There are many different alkylating reagents and types of alkylating reactions, and thus it is a widely used technique in organic chemistry. Alkylation is important for manufacturing in the petroleum and commodity chemicals industries, as well as in medicine, since many chemotherapy drugs are alkylating agents. The breadth of reaction types, conditions, and the economic importance of alkylation necessitates thorough understanding, control, and monitoring of alkylation reactions.

Key Functional Groups for Synthesis of Polymers and Pharmaceuticals

Epoxides are three member ethers having a highly strained ring structure containing two carbons and an oxygen. Because of the strain in this structure, epoxides are quite reactive and represent a valuable functional group for performing a variety of reactions. Due to this, epoxides are useful in polymer, pharmaceutical, and fine chemical syntheses.

Key C-C Bond-Forming Reactions in Molecular Synthesis

The Suzuki and related cross-coupling reactions use transition metal catalysts, such as palladium complexes, to form C-C bonds between alkyl and aryl halides with various organic compounds. These catalyzed reactions are widely used methods to efficiently increase molecular complexity in pharmaceutical, polymer, and natural product syntheses. PAT technology is used to investigate cross-coupled reactions with regard to kinetics, mechanisms, thermodynamics, and the effect of reaction variables on performance and safety.

New Business Realities Call for a New Kind of Laboratory

Key Reagents for Synthesizing Complex Molecules

Lithiation and organolithium reactions are key in the development of complex pharmaceutical compounds. Also, organolithium compounds act as initiators in certain polymerization reactions. The exceptional reactivity of organolithium reagents result from the strong polarity of the C-Li bond, making these reactions and family of compounds among the most important in industrial applications. In situ ReactIR technology has proven useful for investigating lithiations and organolithium reactions in both batch and continuous flow applications.

Control Residual Isocyanate

Isocyanates are critical building blocks for high performance polyurethane-based polymers that make up coatings, foams, adhesives, elastomers, and insulation. Concerns over exposure to residual isocyanates led to new limits for residual isocyanates in new products. Traditional analytical methods for measuring the residual isocyanate (NCO) concentration using offline sampling and analysis raise concerns. In situ monitoring with process analytical technology addresses these challenges and enables manufacturers and formulators to ensure that product quality specifications, personnel safety, and environmental regulations are met.

Measuring Polymerization Reactions

Measuring and understanding polymerization reactions, mechanisms, kinetics, reactivity ratios, and activation energies lead researchers to employ in situ infrared spectroscopy as a routine technique to gain comprehensive, information-rich data that is used to advance research in a shorter time frame.

Impurity Profiling of Chemical Reactions

Knowledge of impurity kinetics and mechanism of formation is important in determining reaction end-point in chemical and process development studies. Accurate, reproducible, and representative reactions samples are necessary for these studies.

Kemisk reaktionskinetik

In situ-kemiske reaktionskinetikundersøgelser giver en forbedret forståelse af reaktionsmekanismen og vejen ved at tilvejebringe koncentrationsafhængighed af reagerende komponenter i realtid. Kontinuerlige data i løbet af en reaktion muliggør beregning af hastighedslove med færre eksperimenter på grund af den omfattende karakter af dataene.

Flow Chemistry

Continuous flow chemistry opens options with exothermic synthetic steps that are not possible in batch reactors, and new developments in flow reactor design provide alternatives for reactions that are mixing limited in batch reactors. This can often result in better product quality and higher yield.  When coupled with Process Analytical Technology (PAT), flow chemistry allows for rapid analysis, optimization, and scale-up of a chemical reaction.

Grignard Reaction Mechanisms

Grignard reactions are one of the most important reaction classes in organic chemistry. Grignard reactions are useful for forming carbon-carbon bonds. Grignard reactions form alcohols from ketones and aldehydes, as well as react with other chemicals to form a myriad of useful compounds. Grignard reactions are performed using a Grignard reagent, which is typically a alkyl-, aryl- or vinyl- organomagnesium halide compound. To ensure optimization and safety of Grignard reactions in research, development and production, in situ monitoring and understanding reaction heat flow is important.

Hydrogenation Reactions

Hydrogenation reactions are used in the manufacturing of both bulk and fine chemicals for reducing multiple bonds to single bonds. Catalysts are typically used to promote these reactions and reaction temperature, pressure, substrate loading, catalyst loading, and agitation rate all effect hydrogen gas uptake and overall reaction performance. Thorough understanding of this energetic reaction is important and PAT technology in support of HPLC analysis ensure safe, optimized and well-characterized chemistry.

Highly Reactive Chemistries

Highly reactive chemistry is a terminology used to describe chemical reactions that are particularly challenging to handle and develop due to the potentially hazardous and/or energetic nature of the reactants, intermediates and products that are present during synthesis. These chemistries often involve highly exothermic reactions which require specialized equipment or extreme operating conditions (such as low temperature) to ensure adequate control. Ensuring safe operating conditions, minimizing human exposure, and gaining the maximum amount of information from each experiment are key factors in successfully designing and scaling-up highly reactive chemistries.

High Pressure Reactions

Many processes require reactions to be run under high pressure. Working under pressure is challenging and collecting samples for offline analysis is difficult and time consuming. A change in pressure could affect reaction rate, conversion and mechanism as well as other process parameters plus sensitivity to oxygen, water, and associated safety issues are common problems.

Hydroformylation or Oxo Synthesis/Process

Hydroformylation, or oxo synthesis/process, is important for the production of olefins to aldehydes and aldehydes from alkenes. Hydroformylation reactions are performed at high pressure and can be challenging to sample due to the extreme reaction conditions, as well as the toxic, flammable, and reactive raw materials and reagents.

synthesis reactions

One of the four major classes of chemical reactions, synthesis reactions are represented by important examples in organic synthesis, catalyzed chemistry, polymerizations and inorganic/organometallic chemistry. In the simplest case, a synthesis reaction occurs when two molecules combine to form a third, more complex product molecule. Often, synthesis reactions are more complex and require a thorough understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of the underlying chemistry, as well as carefully controlled reaction conditions.

Design of Experiments (DoE)

Design of Experiments (DoE) requires experiments to be conducted under well-controlled and reproducible conditions in chemical process optimization. Chemical synthesis reactors are designed to perform DoE investigations ensuring high quality data.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy For Real-Time Monitoring Of Chemical Reactions

Reaction Mechanism Pathway

Reaction mechanisms describe the successive steps at the molecular level that take place in a chemical reaction. Reaction mechanisms cannot be proven, but rather postulated based on empirical experimentation and deduction. In situ FTIR spectroscopy provides information to support reaction mechanisms hypotheses.

Organometallic Synthesis

Organometallic Synthesis, or Organometallic Chemistry, refers to the process of creating organometallic compounds, and is among the most researched areas in chemistry. Organometallic compounds are frequently used in fine chemical syntheses and to catalyze reactions. In situ Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are among the most powerful analytical methods for the study of organometallic compounds and syntheses.

Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical process by which nucleotides are specifically linked to form a desired sequenced product. The repetitive cyclic nature of the synthesis used in producing these biopolymers requires careful control of reaction variables, as well as step-wise reaction tracking and purity assurance to ensure that the desired sequence is attained. PAT methodology supports the development and production of these important biomolecules.

Alkylation is the process by when an alkyl group is added to a substrate molecule. There are many different alkylating reagents and types of alkylating reactions, and thus it is a widely used technique in organic chemistry. Alkylation is important for manufacturing in the petroleum and commodity chemicals industries, as well as in medicine, since many chemotherapy drugs are alkylating agents. The breadth of reaction types, conditions, and the economic importance of alkylation necessitates thorough understanding, control, and monitoring of alkylation reactions.

Epoxides are three member ethers having a highly strained ring structure containing two carbons and an oxygen. Because of the strain in this structure, epoxides are quite reactive and represent a valuable functional group for performing a variety of reactions. Due to this, epoxides are useful in polymer, pharmaceutical, and fine chemical syntheses.

The Suzuki and related cross-coupling reactions use transition metal catalysts, such as palladium complexes, to form C-C bonds between alkyl and aryl halides with various organic compounds. These catalyzed reactions are widely used methods to efficiently increase molecular complexity in pharmaceutical, polymer, and natural product syntheses. PAT technology is used to investigate cross-coupled reactions with regard to kinetics, mechanisms, thermodynamics, and the effect of reaction variables on performance and safety.

Lithiation and organolithium reactions are key in the development of complex pharmaceutical compounds. Also, organolithium compounds act as initiators in certain polymerization reactions. The exceptional reactivity of organolithium reagents result from the strong polarity of the C-Li bond, making these reactions and family of compounds among the most important in industrial applications. In situ ReactIR technology has proven useful for investigating lithiations and organolithium reactions in both batch and continuous flow applications.

Publikationer

Udgivelser om syntetisk organisk kemi

White Papers

Teknikker til at syntetisere gennembrud for molekyler
Fremskridt inden for organisk kemi giver forskere mulighed for at udvide F&U af molekyler og optimere procesbetingelserne. Et nyt white paper præsente...
Kemisk syntese på en anden måde end rundkolben
Lær, hvordan du kan forbedre din organiske syntese!Dette white paper gennemgår nye metoder for organisk syntese, herunder hvordan man kan: afkøle og o...
Metal Catalyzed Transformations Using In Situ Spectroscopy
This white paper reviews recent advances in organic chemistry using chemical reaction monitoring.
In Situ Monitoring of Chemical Reactions
'How to do more with less?' is a constant topic in chemical development laboratories as researchers need to quickly and cost-effectively deliver chemi...
Proces FTIR til sikker udførelse af en reduktion af natriumborhydrid
John O'Reilly fra Roche Irland gennemgår et bæredygtigt procesanalytisk teknologi (PAT)-system, ved brug af proces FTIR til sikker udførelse af en red...
Real-Time Reaction Monitoring
Real time, in situ mid-FTIR reaction monitoring leads to a greater understanding of catalyst activity and robustness. Researchers at the University of...
Grignard-reaktionsopskalering - 4 trin til kontrol af udviklingen
Eksoterme kemiske reaktioner udgør iboende risici - især under opskalering. Offentliggjorte undersøgelser fra top kemiske og farmaceutiske virksomhede...
Hurtig analyse af kontinuerlige reaktionsoptimeringsforsøg
White paper - Hurtig analyse af kontinuerlige reaktionsoptimeringsforsøg - gennemgå, hvordan man optimerer kemiske reaktioner.

Webseminarer

Hydrogenation Under High Pressure
This presentation discusses the implementation of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reaction monitoring technology to provide knowledge and understand...
Mercks udvikling af kemiske processer
Shane Grosser gennemgår, hvordan Mercks laboratorium for procesudviklingsintensivering udvikler nye værktøjer og metoder for at øge hastigheden og ned...
Reaction Kinetics Progress Analysis Ryan Baxter
This webinar explores a graphical analysis approach to rationalize unusual kinetics in C-H activations. The Reaction Progress Kinetic Analysis (RPKA)...
Hydrogenation Under High Pressure
This presentation discusses the implementation of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reaction monitoring technology to provide knowledge and understand...
DoE to Peptide Synthesis
Learn how Design of Experiments (DoE) is applied to chemical synthesis at Lonza Peptide.

Relaterede produkter

Værktøjer til syntetisk organisk kemi

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