Refractive index applications - METTLER TOLEDO

Refractive index applications

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Concentration tables


Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Acetic Acid
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Calcium Chloride
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Cupric Sulfate
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Ethylene Glycol
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Formic Acid
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Magnesium Chloride
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Nitric Acid
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Phosphoric Acid
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Potassium Chloride
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Propylene Glycol
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Sea water
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Sodium Carbonate
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Sodium Chloride
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Sulfuric Acid
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Tartaric Acid
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Tetracaine Hydrochloride
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Urine, Human
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Zinc Sulfate
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)
Refractometry concentration table (+20°C)



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Case Studies

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Library Items

brix standard
Verifying the accuracy of Brix measurement with a refractometer is done with Brix standards, which are produced onsite by mixing sugar and water in a...
Sugar testing
Sugar testing ensures that quality standards, specifically those defined by ICUMSA, are fulfilled. Learn about analytical methods for the measurement...
what is refractometry
Learn about refractometry, which instruments are used for measuring refractive index, common applications, and more!



For density measurement guides, whitepapers, webinars, or more information about our products, please visit our Expertise Library.

For specific applications in density visit our Applications Library.


Standard or RegulationShort DescriptionCompatible with Mettler-Toledo Density Meters?
ISO/EN 15212-1Density using Oscillating U-TubeYes



Standard or RegulationShort DescriptionCompatible with Mettler-Toledo Density Meters?
DIN EN ISO 3675Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products -- Laboratory determination of density -- Hydrometer methodAccuracy and repeatability met with Mettler-Toledo density meters.
ANSI 1250Manual of Petroleum Measurement StandardsYes
API Std 2540 Standard Guide for API TablesYes
ASTM D1250 Standard Guide for API TablesYes
ASTM D1475Standard Test Method for Density of Liquid Coatings, Inks, and Related Products - using cup or pycnometerNot applicable
ASTM D2501Standard Test Method for Calculation of Viscosity-Gravity Constant (VGC) of Petroleum OilsYes, density only
ASTM D4052Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density MeterYes
ASTM D4806Standard Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasolines for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine FuelYes, density only
ASTM D5002Density of Crude OilsYes
ASTM D5931Density of Engine CoolantsYes
ASTM D6448Standard Specification for Industrial Burner Fuels from Used Lubricating OilsYes, density only
ASTM D7777Density of General Samples by Portable MeterYes
DIN 51757Density of Mineral Oils and Related MaterialsYes
EN 14214:2003Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) for diesel enginesYes
IP 200/52 API Manual of Petroleum Measurement StandardsYes
IP 365Crude petroleum and petroleum products - Determination of density - Oscillating U-tube methodYes
IP 559Density of Fuels by Portable Digital MeterYes
ISO 91Petroleum Measurement TablesYes
ISO 12185-2Density of Crude Oils and General SamplesYes
ISO 2811-3Paint and varnishes IP 365 – Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products using oscillating U-tubeYes


Food & Beverage

Standard or RegulationShort DescriptionCompatible with Mettler-Toledo Density Meters?
Directive 2009/106/CEFruit JuiceYes
AOAC Official Method 988.06Specific Gravity of Beer and WortYes
AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 920.57, 920.62 (17th Ed)Alcohol in Wines By Volume from Specific Gravity / Extract of winesYes
AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 950.28, 982.10 (17th Ed)Specific gravity of nonalcoholic beverages  / Alcohol by volume in distilled liquors. Density methodYes
ASBC Beer-2BSpecific Gravity by digital density meter (1978)Yes
ASBC Beer-5Real Extract (B. Beer measured gravimetrically (1958), C. Real Extract determined refractometrically (1982))Yes
European Union Spirits drinks: COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 2870/2000Community reference methods for the analysis of spirits drinksYes
European Union Wines: COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 128/2004Community methods for the analysis of wines - comparison between hydrostatic balance and electronic densimetry, proving them as equivalentYes
European Union Wines: COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 355/2005Amending Regulation (EC) No 2869/95 on the fees payableNot applicable
European Union Wines: COMMISSION REGULATION (EEC) No 2676/90Community methods for the analysis of wines - specifies only hydrostatic balances, hydrometers, pycnometersSee EC No 128/2004
ISO 18301Animal and vegetable fats and oils -- Determination of conventional mass per volume (litre weight in air) -- Oscillating U-tube methodYes
OIV Analysis method for density measurement in wine and mustsOIV Analysis method for density measurement in wine and mustsYes
OIV MA-BS-03Alcoholic strength determination using pycnometerAccuracy and repeatability met with Mettler-Toledo density meters.
OIV MA-BS-04Alcoholic strength determination using oscillation methodYes
OIV MA-BS-06Density determination of alcohols and alcoholic beverages using U-tube methodYes



Standard or RegulationShort DescriptionCompatible with Mettler-Toledo Density Meters?
Pharm. Eu. (2005) JP (2005) USP (2006)Density using Oscillating U-tubeYes
Ph. Eur. 2.2.5 Relative densityYes
USP chapter 841 (as of USP 29)Specific gravity Method IIYes


Refractive Index

For refractometry measurement guides, whitepapers, webinars, or more information about our products, please visit our Expertise Library.

For specific applications in refractometry visit our Applications Library.


Standard or RegulationShort DescriptionCompatible with Mettler-Toledo Refractometers?
AOAC 983.01 Determination of Urea in Fluid Fertilizers Containing Water-Soluble Urea-Formaldehyde Reaction Products Yes
ASTM D524 Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products, left after evaporation and pyrolysis of an oilNot applicable
ASTM D1218Refractive index of General ProductsYes
ASTM D1747Refractive Index of Viscous MaterialsYes
ASTM D 1807Standard Test Methods for Refractive Index and Specific Optical Dispersion of Electrical Insulating LiquidsYes
ASTM D2140Standard Practice for Calculating Carbon-Type Composition of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin (Viscosity Gravity Constant)Yes
ASTM D3321Freezing Point Engine CoolantsYes
ASTM D4095 Standard Practice for Use of the Refractometer for Determining Nonvolatile Matter (Total Solids) in Floor PolishesYes
ASTM D4542Refractive Index of Soluble Salt of SoilsYes
ASTM D5006System Icing InhibitorsYes
DIN 51423 - part 1Refractive Index of Mineral OilsYes
UOP 816Refractive index of General ProductsYes
DIN 51423 - part 2Measurement of the relative refractive index with the Abbe-refractometerYes
ICUMSA SPS-3Refractometry and TablesYes
ISO 280Essential oils - determination of refractive indexYes
ISO 8036Immersion liquids for light microscopyYes


Food & Beverage

Standard or RegulationShort DescriptionCompatible with Mettler-Toledo Refractometers?
AOAC 2000.19 Beet or cane sugar in maple syrup. Site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) methodNot applicable
AOAC 896.02 Sucrose in sugars and syrups. Double dilution methodYes
AOAC 898.02 Physical Constants of 10 Per Cent Distillate of Lemon and Orange OilsYes
AOAC 905.01 Methanol in Distilled Liquors Immersion Refractometer MethodYes
AOAC 920.141 Refractive index of lemon and orange oilsYes
AOAC 920.78 Index of Refraction of Cacao FatYes
AOAC 921.08 Index of refraction of oils and fatsYes
AOAC 932.12 Solids (Soluble) in Fruits and Fruit Products Refractometer Method Yes
AOAC 932.14, Section C Solids in SyrupsYes
AOAC 940.09 Total solids in cordials and liqueurs Yes
AOAC 943.05 Dry substance in corn syrups and sugarsYes
AOAC 945.102 Oil (mineral) in fatYes
AOAC 948.10 Water (added) in milk Yes
AOAC 950.04 Alcohol by Volume in Distilled Liquors Refractometer Method Yes
AOAC 950.13 Alcohol in Nonalcoholic Beverages Yes
AOAC 953.16  Fruit Content (Approximate) of Frozen Fruit-Sugar MixturesYes
AOAC 969.18 Refractive Index of ButterfatYes
AOAC 969.38 Moisture in honey Yes
AOAC 970.15 Alcohol (by weight) in beer. Refractometer methodYes
AOAC 970.59 Solids (Soluble) in Tomato Products Refractive Index Method Yes
AOAC 976.20 Solids (Soluble) in Frozen Concentrate for Lemonade - Refractometer Method Sucrose Content with Citric Acid Correction FactorYes
AOAC 983.17 Solids (Soluble) in Citrus Fruit Juices Refractometer MethodYes
ICUMSA GS4/3-13Refractometric Dry Substance (RDS %) of Molasses and Very Pure Syrups (Liquid Sugars)Yes
ISI 06-1eDetermination of Dry Matter in Syrup by Refractive IndexYes
OIML R 108 Refractometers for the measurement of the sugar content of fruit juicesYes
OIV MA-AS2-02 Evaluation of sugar by refractometryYes
OIV MA-AS312-01BEvaluation by refractometry of the sugar concentration in grape musts, concentrated grape musts and rectified concentrated grape mustsYes
A.O.C.S. Official method Cc7-25Refractive Index (sampling analysis of commercial fats and oils)Yes



Standard or RegulationShort DescriptionCompatible with Mettler-Toledo Refractometers?
USP 831 Refractive IndexYes
Ph. Eur. 2.2.6 Refractive IndexYes




ANSI: American National Standards Institute
AOAC: Association of Official Agricultural Chemists
AOCS: American Oil Chemists' Society
API: American Petroleum Institute
ASBC: American Society of Brewing Chemists
ASTM: American society for testing and materials
DIN: Deutsches Institut für Normung
EN: CEN, European Committee for Standardization
ICUMSA: International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis
IP: Institute of petroleum
ISI: Certification for industrial products in India
ISO: International standardization organization
OIV: International Organization of Vine and Wine
Ph.Eur.: European Pharmacopeia
USP: United States Pharmacopeia

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