Chemical Process Safety | Techniques, Equipment

Chemical Process Safety

Avoid Losing Control Over a Chemical Process

Chemical Process Safety

Chemical Process Safety
Chemical Process Safety Important
Techniques to Investigate Chemical Process Safety
Reaction Calorimetry in Chemical Process Safety
Technology for Chemical Process Safety

Applications

Chemical Process Development & Scale-Up
Design Robust and Sustainable Chemical Processes For Faster Transfer To Pilot Plant and Production

Design Robust and Sustainable Chemical Processes For Faster Transfer To Pilot Plant and Production

Heat Transfer and Process Scale-up
How Heat Transport in Agitated Vessels Affects Process Scale-up

Scaling-up a chemical process from lab to manufacturing gives useful results only with accurate heat transfer coefficients. Measuring the jacket and reactor temperature (during the release of a well-defined amount of heat) allows researchers to accurately compute the thermal resistance which is used to model the heat transfer and make critical predictions for reactors at larger scale. Reaction calorimetry is essential to determine parameters that impact the heat transfer and the heat transfer coefficients to develop models to maximize the bandwidth of a manufacturing plant. 

Mass Transfer and Reaction Rate
Mixing in a Chemical Reactor and the Effect on Reaction Kinetics and Scale-up

Mixing is the reduction or elimination of inhomogeneity of phases that are either miscible or immiscible. Process scale-up and optimization require that the impact of mixing on the reaction rate be quantified. Automated, controlled experiments can be run in parallel in a laboratory reactor system to establish a mass transfer correlation, and provide a means to quickly adjust the gas/ liquid interface area and reactor volume. This achieves the desired conditions required for the scale-up or scale-down of a process.

Chemical Reaction Kinetics Studies
Study Chemical Reaction Rates and Measure Kinetics Inline

In situ chemical reaction kinetics studies provide an improved understanding of reaction mechanism and pathway by providing concentration dependences of reacting components in real-time. Continuous data over the course of a reaction allows for the calculation of rate laws with fewer experiments due to the comprehensive nature of the data.  Reaction Progression Kinetics Analysis (RPKA) uses in situ data under synthetically relevant concentrations and captures information throughout the whole experiment ensuring that the complete reaction behavior can be accurately described.

Grignard Reaction Mechanisms
Understand and Control Exothermic Events

Grignard reactions are one of the most important reaction classes in organic chemistry. Grignard reactions are useful for forming carbon-carbon bonds. Grignard reactions form alcohols from ketones and aldehydes, as well as react with other chemicals to form a myriad of useful compounds. Grignard reactions are performed using a Grignard reagent, which is typically a alkyl-, aryl- or vinyl- organomagnesium halide compound. To ensure optimization and safety of Grignard reactions in research, development and production, in situ monitoring and understanding reaction heat flow is important.

Hydrogenation Reactions
Safe Reaction Monitoring at Elevated Temperature and Pressure

Hydrogenation reactions are used in the manufacturing of both bulk and fine chemicals for reducing multiple bonds to single bonds. Catalysts are typically used to promote these reactions and reaction temperature, pressure, substrate loading, catalyst loading, and agitation rate all effect hydrogen gas uptake and overall reaction performance. Thorough understanding of this energetic reaction is important and PAT technology in support of HPLC analysis ensure safe, optimized and well-characterized chemistry.

Flow Chemistry
Improve Safety, Reduce Cycle Time, Increase Quality and Yield

Continuous flow chemistry opens options with exothermic synthetic steps that are not possible in batch reactors, and new developments in flow reactor design provide alternatives for reactions that are mixing limited in batch reactors. This can often result in better product quality and higher yield.  When coupled with Process Analytical Technology (PAT), flow chemistry allows for rapid analysis, optimization, and scale-up of a chemical reaction.

Measuring Polymerization Reactions
Methods and Techniques to Develop Synthetic Polymer Chemistry

Measuring and understanding polymerization reactions, mechanisms, kinetics, reactivity ratios, and activation energies lead researchers to employ in situ infrared spectroscopy as a routine technique to gain comprehensive, information-rich data that is used to advance research in a shorter time frame.

Crystallization and Precipitation
Optimize Crystal Size, Yield, and Purity with Crystallization Equipment

Optimization and scale-up of crystallization and precipitation to produce a product that consistently meets purity, yield, form and particle size specifications can be one of the biggest challenges of process development.

Avoid Explosion Risks Hazards of Chemical Reactions
Risks of Explosions in Chemical Process and How to Avoid Hazards in the Plant

Scientists and engineers eliminate risks of explosions in a chemical plant with a comprehensive safety study. The safety study is applied to develop a process that eliminates uncontrolled heat or gas generation, flammable vapor release, or an over-pressurization of the reactor leading to rupture and loss of contents, which may be flammable. In order to avoid the risk of uncontrolled heat generation, reaction calorimetry determines the heat of reaction and the rate of heat release, so that a process can be designed that minimizes the risk of loss of control.

Prevent Runaway Chemical Reactions
Develop a Safe Chemical Process

Essential measurements and calculations are necessary to model runaway scenarios and establish the ideal reaction procedure. Measuring, calculating, and understanding the parameters are essential to assess and avoid risk in a chemical process. This allows scientists to make predictions about the temperature profiles, maximum operating temperature, and dosing.

Assess the Risk of Chemical Processes

The heat of reaction, or reaction enthalpy, is an essential parameter to safely and successfully scale-up chemical processes. The heat of reaction is the energy that is released or absorbed when chemicals are transformed in a chemical reaction.

Chemical Process Development & Scale-Up

Design Robust and Sustainable Chemical Processes For Faster Transfer To Pilot Plant and Production

Heat Transfer and Process Scale-up

Scaling-up a chemical process from lab to manufacturing gives useful results only with accurate heat transfer coefficients. Measuring the jacket and reactor temperature (during the release of a well-defined amount of heat) allows researchers to accurately compute the thermal resistance which is used to model the heat transfer and make critical predictions for reactors at larger scale. Reaction calorimetry is essential to determine parameters that impact the heat transfer and the heat transfer coefficients to develop models to maximize the bandwidth of a manufacturing plant. 

Mass Transfer and Reaction Rate

Mixing is the reduction or elimination of inhomogeneity of phases that are either miscible or immiscible. Process scale-up and optimization require that the impact of mixing on the reaction rate be quantified. Automated, controlled experiments can be run in parallel in a laboratory reactor system to establish a mass transfer correlation, and provide a means to quickly adjust the gas/ liquid interface area and reactor volume. This achieves the desired conditions required for the scale-up or scale-down of a process.

Chemical Reaction Kinetics Studies

In situ chemical reaction kinetics studies provide an improved understanding of reaction mechanism and pathway by providing concentration dependences of reacting components in real-time. Continuous data over the course of a reaction allows for the calculation of rate laws with fewer experiments due to the comprehensive nature of the data.  Reaction Progression Kinetics Analysis (RPKA) uses in situ data under synthetically relevant concentrations and captures information throughout the whole experiment ensuring that the complete reaction behavior can be accurately described.

Grignard Reaction Mechanisms

Grignard reactions are one of the most important reaction classes in organic chemistry. Grignard reactions are useful for forming carbon-carbon bonds. Grignard reactions form alcohols from ketones and aldehydes, as well as react with other chemicals to form a myriad of useful compounds. Grignard reactions are performed using a Grignard reagent, which is typically a alkyl-, aryl- or vinyl- organomagnesium halide compound. To ensure optimization and safety of Grignard reactions in research, development and production, in situ monitoring and understanding reaction heat flow is important.

Hydrogenation Reactions

Hydrogenation reactions are used in the manufacturing of both bulk and fine chemicals for reducing multiple bonds to single bonds. Catalysts are typically used to promote these reactions and reaction temperature, pressure, substrate loading, catalyst loading, and agitation rate all effect hydrogen gas uptake and overall reaction performance. Thorough understanding of this energetic reaction is important and PAT technology in support of HPLC analysis ensure safe, optimized and well-characterized chemistry.

Flow Chemistry

Continuous flow chemistry opens options with exothermic synthetic steps that are not possible in batch reactors, and new developments in flow reactor design provide alternatives for reactions that are mixing limited in batch reactors. This can often result in better product quality and higher yield.  When coupled with Process Analytical Technology (PAT), flow chemistry allows for rapid analysis, optimization, and scale-up of a chemical reaction.

Measuring Polymerization Reactions

Measuring and understanding polymerization reactions, mechanisms, kinetics, reactivity ratios, and activation energies lead researchers to employ in situ infrared spectroscopy as a routine technique to gain comprehensive, information-rich data that is used to advance research in a shorter time frame.

Crystallization and Precipitation

Optimization and scale-up of crystallization and precipitation to produce a product that consistently meets purity, yield, form and particle size specifications can be one of the biggest challenges of process development.

Avoid Explosion Risks Hazards of Chemical Reactions

Scientists and engineers eliminate risks of explosions in a chemical plant with a comprehensive safety study. The safety study is applied to develop a process that eliminates uncontrolled heat or gas generation, flammable vapor release, or an over-pressurization of the reactor leading to rupture and loss of contents, which may be flammable. In order to avoid the risk of uncontrolled heat generation, reaction calorimetry determines the heat of reaction and the rate of heat release, so that a process can be designed that minimizes the risk of loss of control.

Prevent Runaway Chemical Reactions

Essential measurements and calculations are necessary to model runaway scenarios and establish the ideal reaction procedure. Measuring, calculating, and understanding the parameters are essential to assess and avoid risk in a chemical process. This allows scientists to make predictions about the temperature profiles, maximum operating temperature, and dosing.

The heat of reaction, or reaction enthalpy, is an essential parameter to safely and successfully scale-up chemical processes. The heat of reaction is the energy that is released or absorbed when chemicals are transformed in a chemical reaction.

Publications

Know-how

Sustain a Culture of Safety
The series of safety resources offers application-specific knowledge.
Insight for Every Reaction
Resources to help gain insight into every reaction
Guide to Chemical Process Safety
Guide to Process Safety discusses challenges to consider when designing a safe process including thermal hazard analysis in chemical production, runaw...
Risks From Rising Temperature
In chemical process scale-up, understanding temperature change and the associated heat that is accumulated by the reaction are critical to process saf...

On-Demand Webinars

Challenges in Process Safety Assurance of a Hazardous Epoxidation
This case study summarizes the retrospective process to assure safety of an energetic epoxidation process following regulatory intervention action.
Impact of Process Intensification on Process Safety
This presentation discusses how Nalas Engineering safely handles high energy materials and hazardous chemistry.

Related Products

Technology Used in Chemical Process Safety and Thermal Hazard Analysis

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