The wide range of accessories and options, such as DMA and TMA measuring systems, various cooling devices or automatic sample changing systems o...
The wide range of accessories and options, such as DMA and TMA measuring systems, various cooling devices or automatic sample changing systems open up new opportunities and expand your thermal analysis system.
The wide range of accessories and thermal analysis options, such as DMA and TMA measuring systems, various cooling devices or automatic sample changing systems open up new opportunities and expand your thermal analysis system.
Automatic Sample Robot
Up to 34 DSC or TGA samples can be automatically processed, each with a specific method and crucible. A unique feature of the sample robot is that it can open crucibles before the measurement. This eliminates ambient influences on the sample during the wait time on the sample turntable.
Up to 34 samples can be automatically processed
Universal gripper for various types of crucibles
Lid piercing for DSC and TGA measurements
Sample turntable can be changed
Any DSC 1 and TGA/DSC 1 can be upgraded with a sample robot
A different analysis method can be used for each sample
Cooling Options for DSC, TGA and TMA
The DSC can optionally be equipped with a cryostat, an intracooler or a liquid nitrogen cooling accessory. For the TGA and TMA, housing thermostating and furnace cooling require a cryostat. DMA low temperature operations are based on liquid nitrogen cooling.
DSC curves often exhibit effects that cannot immediately be understood. In such cases, it would be very helpful to actually see what is going on in the sample. This would enable us to identify solid-solid transitions, differentiate between overlapping effects such as melting and decomposition, observe the shrinkage of fibers or films, or simply identify the cause of an artifact in a DSC curve.
MultiSTAR® DSC Ceramic Sensors
The MultiSTAR® sensor features multi-layer thermocouple technology allowing 120 thermocouples to be arranged on top of one another in several layers. This results in incredible sensitivity, a noise level in the sub-microwatt range, but at the same time good resolution.
TGA-Sorption System - Measurements with controlled humidity
The TGA-Sorption System is designed to analyze materials under defined conditions of temperature and relative humidity (RH).
Unique flexibility – a highly sensitive thermobalance combined with full sorption analysis capability
Defined environment – the effect of moisture and temperature on material properties can be easily investigated
Pre-conditioning versatility – methods allow the use of elevated preconditioning temperatures (up to 150 °C)
Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) - Hyphenated techniques
All TGA and TGA/DSC versions, the TMA/SDTA can be connected online to a mass spectrometer (MS), an FTIR spectrometer or to a GC/MS system. Analysis of the decomposition products yields additional information about the sample. This enables you to interpret measurement curves with greater certainty.
Optional equipment and expansion options for every TA application. Numerous accessories, such as DMA and TMA measuring systems, various cooling devices or automatic sample changing systems guarantee the optimized operation of the thermal analysis system.
Up to 34 DSC or TGA samples can be automatically processed, each with a specific method and crucible. A unique feature of the sample robot is that it can open crucibles before the measurement.
Useful thermal analysis options
The DSCs can optionally be equipped with a cryostat, an intracooler or a liquid nitrogen cooling accessory. For the TGAs and TMAs, housing thermostating and furnace cooling require a cryostat. DMA low temperature operations are based on liquid nitrogen cooling.
DMA measurements can be performed under very different conditions to characterize the mechanical properties of materials. A great deal of information about a sample is obtained when the temperature, frequency or displacement amplitude is varied. The mechanical properties of composites or anisotropic materials can only be fully described by varying the direction of the deformation measurement or by using other measurement modes. This article discusses a number of typical examples.
The glass transition of semicrystalline polymers is often weak and difficult to measure by DSC. In this article, we show how a glass transition step of less than 0.1 J/g·K can be reproducibly determined using the DSC. The sample investigated was isotactic polypropylene (iPP) with a degree of crystallinity of 50%.
The TGA-GC/MS system can be used to investigate the composition of unknown samples. This is done by installing the IST16 storage interface between the TGA and the GC/MS. The interface allows up to 16 evolved gas samples to be stored at different furnace temperatures during the TGA measurement. The gas samples are analyzed and identified by GC/MS when the TGA analysis is finished. This article describes how a black polymer granule was characterized using this technique.
The mechanical properties of polymer-metal adhesive joints were studied as a function of the thickness of the adhesive layer using DMA. The glass transition temperature and the effective crosslinking density were evaluated from the shear modulus measurement curves. The results show that both quantities are strongly dependent on the thickness of the polymer layer. This is due to the formation of an interphase in the contact region of polymer and metal. The properties of the interphase depend on the metal used.
DMA measurements provide many different possibilities for characterizing materials. This article shows how DMA in combination with other thermal analysis techniques can be used to comprehensively characterize materials using different polymers as examples.measurement modes. This article discusses a number of typical examples.
Safety is an important aspect in process development in the chemical industry. This article, describes how reaction calorimetry and DSC can be used to quickly assess the thermal hazard potential of chemicals and chemical reactions.
In many applications, such as in cables or seals, rubber blends must possess both excellent mechanical properties and good flame-resistant properties. This article shows how flame resistance can be easily determined by TGA measurements and how the combination of mechanical and thermogravimetric measurements can be employed to optimize properties.
Photopolymerization is nowadays a widely used process. Systems are used for medical applications, for example in dentistry, for adhesive applications, in coating technology, and quite recently for 3D printing . This article describes how the curing behavior of a two-component UV-curing sample can be investigated.
Many different sorts of lipstick and mascara are nowadays available. The most important characteristics of these products are that the effect lasts a long time, that the products are easy to apply and easy to remove, and that they are physically and chemically stable and do not irritate the skin. The waxes and oils in lipstick are responsible for ease of application; carbon black is often used as pigment in mascara. Thermal analysis techniques allow the quality of these types of cosmetic products to be easily checked.
Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is one of the main constituents of bone replacement materials which find wide use in medical and dental applications for bone grafting and for implants. This article shows how TGA/DSC and TMA can be used to investigate the synthesis of tricalcium phosphate and to determine the transition temperatures of different TCP polymorphs.
When polymeric binders are used in paints with hydrophilic pigments such as titanium oxide, the pigments must be treated beforehand with polymers that are compatible with the binder. Otherwise, large agglomerates can form due to poor adhesion between the binder and the particles. This can lead to brittle films and fractures in the paint coating. This article shows how TGA and DSC can be used to determine important properties of the coating using titanium dioxide as an example.
For many practical applications, it is important to be able to quickly and reliably identify polymers. This article describes how semicrystalline polymers can be identified by measuring their melting points using DSC.
A thermobalance coupled to a suitable Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) system allows qualitative information to be obtained about the gaseous reaction or decomposition products formed in a TGA experiment in addition to purely quantitative information about mass changes. This new series of articles discusses the various measurement techniques that METTLER TOLEDO offers for such analyses.
The fluid bath DMA 1 option allows the influence of swelling on the dynamic mechanical properties of a sample to be measured in the temperature range 0 to 200 °C. This means that deformation conditions of components that are in direct contact with fluids can be simulated (for example drive or timing belts that permanently run in motor oil).
Crystalline pharmaceutical substances often decompose immediately before or during melting. To determine the glass transition temperature, the substance must be melted and then cooled as rapidly as possible so that decomposition and crystallization do not occur. In many cases, the heating and cooling rates of conventional DSCs are not high enough for this purpose. The METTLER TOLEDO Flash DSC however offers new possibilities. This is illustrated in this article using prednisolone as an example.
The interpretation and quantitative evaluation of thermal analysis measurement curves is difficult when several effects take place simultaneously. A number of methods are available that can be used to separate overlapping effects and analyze them individually afterward. Using suitable examples, we discuss strategies for DSC curves. A second article to be published in the next UserCom will cover TGA applications.
The shelf life of a packaged product, for example in the food sector, is often strongly influenced by the properties of the product packaging. An important factor here is the permeability of the product packaging toward water vapor. The ProUmid SPS and Vsorp sorption test systems in combination with special sample holders allow the transmission rate of water vapor through the packaging and the sorption rate of the packaged products to be determined experimentally.
TGA experiments in combination with a suitable evolved gas analysis (EGA) technique not only provide quantitative information about the change in mass of a sample but also qualitative information about the gaseous reaction or decomposition products that are evolved. In this series of articles, we will discuss the possibilities that METTLER TOLEDO offer.
DSC measurements can be performed up to about 700 °C using conventional DSC instruments. If higher temperatures are required, DSC curves can be measured up to 1600 °C using the TGA/DSC. This article compares DSC and TGA/DSC measurements and discusses how quantitative calorimetric measurements are possible in the high temperature region.
The first measurements of the thermal conductivity of powders  showed that powders can be an interesting alternative to vacuum systems for achieving good thermal insulation. Currently powders of different materials (ceramics or polymers) are used in packaging or for building insulation. On the other hand, the low thermal conductivity of powders entails serious risks in the production and manipulation of energetic powders intended for pyrotechnics or explosives. Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of powders is therefore crucial to avoid spontaneous ignition.
High demands are nowadays put on packaging materials. For example, depending on the application field, the materials must provide optimum barrier properties toward water vapor, oxygen or odorants. In addition, there are requirements regarding tear resistance, transparency and compatibility with the contents of the packaging. In this article, we show how the water vapor transmission rate of materials can be determined using a sorption test system.
The interpretation and evaluation of thermal analysis measurement curves is difficult when several effects take place simultaneously. A number of methods are available that can be used to separate overlapping effects and analyze them individually afterward. In this article, we discuss strategies for TGA curves using suitable examples.
Knowledge of the polymorphic forms of an active substance is very important, especially in the pharmaceutical industry. In this article, we show how previously unknown polymorphs of menthol can be identified and characterized by Flash DSC.
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