Chemical Synthesis | Lab Instruments, Automation

Chemical Synthesis

Producing Quality, Economically-Viable Molecules

Spectrometers for Chemical Synthesis

應用

Synthetic Organic Chemistry Applications

Control Residual Isocyanate
Process Analytical Technology for Continuous Measurement of NCO

Isocyanates are critical building blocks for high performance polyurethane-based polymers that make up coatings, foams, adhesives, elastomers, and insulation. Concerns over exposure to residual isocyanates led to new limits for residual isocyanates in new products. Traditional analytical methods for measuring the residual isocyanate (NCO) concentration using offline sampling and analysis raise concerns. In situ monitoring with process analytical technology addresses these challenges and enables manufacturers and formulators to ensure that product quality specifications, personnel safety, and environmental regulations are met.

Measuring Polymerization Reactions
Methods and Techniques to Develop Synthetic Polymer Chemistry

Measuring and understanding polymerization reactions, mechanisms, kinetics, reactivity ratios, and activation energies lead researchers to employ in situ infrared spectroscopy as a routine technique to gain comprehensive, information-rich data that is used to advance research in a shorter time frame.

Impurity Profiling of Chemical Reactions
Automated Drug Development Strategies for Chemists

Knowledge of impurity kinetics and mechanism of formation is important in determining reaction end-point in chemical and process development studies. Accurate, reproducible, and representative reactions samples are necessary for these studies.

Chemical Reaction Kinetics Studies
Study Chemical Reaction Rates and Measure Kinetics Inline

In situ chemical reaction kinetics studies provide an improved understanding of reaction mechanism and pathway by providing concentration dependences of reacting components in real-time. Continuous data over the course of a reaction allows for the calculation of rate laws with fewer experiments due to the comprehensive nature of the data.  Reaction Progression Kinetics Analysis (RPKA) uses in situ data under synthetically relevant concentrations and captures information throughout the whole experiment ensuring that the complete reaction behavior can be accurately described.

連續流動化學
縮短週期時間、提高品質和生產率

縮短週期時間、提高品質和生產率

Grignard Reaction Mechanisms
Understand and Control Exothermic Events

Grignard reactions are one of the most important reaction classes in organic chemistry. Grignard reactions are useful for forming carbon-carbon bonds. Grignard reactions form alcohols from ketones and aldehydes, as well as react with other chemicals to form a myriad of useful compounds. Grignard reactions are performed using a Grignard reagent, which is typically a alkyl-, aryl- or vinyl- organomagnesium halide compound. To ensure optimization and safety of Grignard reactions in research, development and production, in situ monitoring and understanding reaction heat flow is important.

Hydrogenation Reactions
Safe Reaction Monitoring at Elevated Temperature and Pressure

Hydrogenation reactions are used in the manufacturing of both bulk and fine chemicals for reducing multiple bonds to single bonds. Catalysts are typically used to promote these reactions and reaction temperature, pressure, substrate loading, catalyst loading, and agitation rate all effect hydrogen gas uptake and overall reaction performance. Thorough understanding of this energetic reaction is important and PAT technology in support of HPLC analysis ensure safe, optimized and well-characterized chemistry.

Highly Reactive Chemistries
Scale-Up and Optimize Highly Reactive Chemistries

Highly reactive chemistry is a terminology used to describe chemical reactions that are particularly challenging to handle and develop due to the potentially hazardous and/or energetic nature of the reactants, intermediates and products that are present during synthesis. These chemistries often involve highly exothermic reactions which require specialized equipment or extreme operating conditions (such as low temperature) to ensure adequate control. Ensuring safe operating conditions, minimizing human exposure, and gaining the maximum amount of information from each experiment are key factors in successfully designing and scaling-up highly reactive chemistries.

High Pressure Reactions
Understand and Characterize High Pressure Reactions Under Challenging Sampling Conditions

Many processes require reactions to be run under high pressure. Working under pressure is challenging and collecting samples for offline analysis is difficult and time consuming. A change in pressure could affect reaction rate, conversion and mechanism as well as other process parameters plus sensitivity to oxygen, water, and associated safety issues are common problems.

Hydroformylation or Oxo Synthesis/Process
Understand Catalyst Activity

Hydroformylation, or oxo synthesis/process, is important for the production of olefins to aldehydes and aldehydes from alkenes. Hydroformylation reactions are performed at high pressure and can be challenging to sample due to the extreme reaction conditions, as well as the toxic, flammable, and reactive raw materials and reagents.

Catalytic Reactions
Accelerate Chemical Reactions With a Catalyst

Catalysts create an alternative path to increase the speed and outcome of a reaction, so a thorough understanding of the reaction kinetics is important. Not only does that provide information about the rate of the reaction, but also provides insight into the mechanism of the reaction. There are two types of catalytic reactions: heterogeneous and homogeneous. Heterogeneous is when the catalyst and reactant exist in two different phases. Homogeneous is when the catalyst and the reactant are in the same phase..

synthesis reactions
Providing Important Molecules for Research, Industry, and Commerce

One of the four major classes of chemical reactions, synthesis reactions are represented by important examples in organic synthesis, catalyzed chemistry, polymerizations and inorganic/organometallic chemistry. In the simplest case, a synthesis reaction occurs when two molecules combine to form a third, more complex product molecule. Often, synthesis reactions are more complex and require a thorough understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of the underlying chemistry, as well as carefully controlled reaction conditions.

Design of Experiments (DoE)
A Statistical Approach to Reaction Optimization

Design of Experiments (DoE) requires experiments to be conducted under well-controlled and reproducible conditions in chemical process optimization. Chemical synthesis reactors are designed to perform DoE investigations ensuring high quality data.

Understand the structure of individual molecules and composition of molecular mixtures

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy For Real-Time Monitoring Of Chemical Reactions

Fundamental Understanding of Chemical Reactions and Factors Affecting Them

Reaction mechanisms describe the successive steps at the molecular level that take place in a chemical reaction. Reaction mechanisms cannot be proven, but rather postulated based on empirical experimentation and deduction. In situ FTIR spectroscopy provides information to support reaction mechanisms hypotheses.

Organometallic Synthesis
Understanding and Control of Organometallic Compounds

Organometallic Synthesis, or Organometallic Chemistry, refers to the process of creating organometallic compounds, and is among the most researched areas in chemistry. Organometallic compounds are frequently used in fine chemical syntheses and to catalyze reactions. In situ Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are among the most powerful analytical methods for the study of organometallic compounds and syntheses.

Ensure Yield, Purity, and Cost Objectives

Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical process by which nucleotides are specifically linked to form a desired sequenced product. The repetitive cyclic nature of the synthesis used in producing these biopolymers requires careful control of reaction variables, as well as step-wise reaction tracking and purity assurance to ensure that the desired sequence is attained. PAT methodology supports the development and production of these important biomolecules.

For Key Reactions in Organic Chemistry

Alkylation is the process by when an alkyl group is added to a substrate molecule. There are many different alkylating reagents and types of alkylating reactions, and thus it is a widely used technique in organic chemistry. Alkylation is important for manufacturing in the petroleum and commodity chemicals industries, as well as in medicine, since many chemotherapy drugs are alkylating agents. The breadth of reaction types, conditions, and the economic importance of alkylation necessitates thorough understanding, control, and monitoring of alkylation reactions.

Key Functional Groups for Synthesis of Polymers and Pharmaceuticals

Epoxides are three member ethers having a highly strained ring structure containing two carbons and an oxygen. Because of the strain in this structure, epoxides are quite reactive and represent a valuable functional group for performing a variety of reactions. Due to this, epoxides are useful in polymer, pharmaceutical, and fine chemical syntheses.

Key C-C Bond-Forming Reactions in Molecular Synthesis

The Suzuki and related cross-coupling reactions use transition metal catalysts, such as palladium complexes, to form C-C bonds between alkyl and aryl halides with various organic compounds. These catalyzed reactions are widely used methods to efficiently increase molecular complexity in pharmaceutical, polymer, and natural product syntheses. PAT technology is used to investigate cross-coupled reactions with regard to kinetics, mechanisms, thermodynamics, and the effect of reaction variables on performance and safety.

Control Residual Isocyanate

Isocyanates are critical building blocks for high performance polyurethane-based polymers that make up coatings, foams, adhesives, elastomers, and insulation. Concerns over exposure to residual isocyanates led to new limits for residual isocyanates in new products. Traditional analytical methods for measuring the residual isocyanate (NCO) concentration using offline sampling and analysis raise concerns. In situ monitoring with process analytical technology addresses these challenges and enables manufacturers and formulators to ensure that product quality specifications, personnel safety, and environmental regulations are met.

Measuring Polymerization Reactions

Measuring and understanding polymerization reactions, mechanisms, kinetics, reactivity ratios, and activation energies lead researchers to employ in situ infrared spectroscopy as a routine technique to gain comprehensive, information-rich data that is used to advance research in a shorter time frame.

Impurity Profiling of Chemical Reactions

Knowledge of impurity kinetics and mechanism of formation is important in determining reaction end-point in chemical and process development studies. Accurate, reproducible, and representative reactions samples are necessary for these studies.

Chemical Reaction Kinetics Studies

In situ chemical reaction kinetics studies provide an improved understanding of reaction mechanism and pathway by providing concentration dependences of reacting components in real-time. Continuous data over the course of a reaction allows for the calculation of rate laws with fewer experiments due to the comprehensive nature of the data.  Reaction Progression Kinetics Analysis (RPKA) uses in situ data under synthetically relevant concentrations and captures information throughout the whole experiment ensuring that the complete reaction behavior can be accurately described.

連續流動化學

縮短週期時間、提高品質和生產率

Grignard Reaction Mechanisms

Grignard reactions are one of the most important reaction classes in organic chemistry. Grignard reactions are useful for forming carbon-carbon bonds. Grignard reactions form alcohols from ketones and aldehydes, as well as react with other chemicals to form a myriad of useful compounds. Grignard reactions are performed using a Grignard reagent, which is typically a alkyl-, aryl- or vinyl- organomagnesium halide compound. To ensure optimization and safety of Grignard reactions in research, development and production, in situ monitoring and understanding reaction heat flow is important.

Hydrogenation Reactions

Hydrogenation reactions are used in the manufacturing of both bulk and fine chemicals for reducing multiple bonds to single bonds. Catalysts are typically used to promote these reactions and reaction temperature, pressure, substrate loading, catalyst loading, and agitation rate all effect hydrogen gas uptake and overall reaction performance. Thorough understanding of this energetic reaction is important and PAT technology in support of HPLC analysis ensure safe, optimized and well-characterized chemistry.

Highly Reactive Chemistries

Highly reactive chemistry is a terminology used to describe chemical reactions that are particularly challenging to handle and develop due to the potentially hazardous and/or energetic nature of the reactants, intermediates and products that are present during synthesis. These chemistries often involve highly exothermic reactions which require specialized equipment or extreme operating conditions (such as low temperature) to ensure adequate control. Ensuring safe operating conditions, minimizing human exposure, and gaining the maximum amount of information from each experiment are key factors in successfully designing and scaling-up highly reactive chemistries.

High Pressure Reactions

Many processes require reactions to be run under high pressure. Working under pressure is challenging and collecting samples for offline analysis is difficult and time consuming. A change in pressure could affect reaction rate, conversion and mechanism as well as other process parameters plus sensitivity to oxygen, water, and associated safety issues are common problems.

Hydroformylation or Oxo Synthesis/Process

Hydroformylation, or oxo synthesis/process, is important for the production of olefins to aldehydes and aldehydes from alkenes. Hydroformylation reactions are performed at high pressure and can be challenging to sample due to the extreme reaction conditions, as well as the toxic, flammable, and reactive raw materials and reagents.

Catalytic Reactions

Catalysts create an alternative path to increase the speed and outcome of a reaction, so a thorough understanding of the reaction kinetics is important. Not only does that provide information about the rate of the reaction, but also provides insight into the mechanism of the reaction. There are two types of catalytic reactions: heterogeneous and homogeneous. Heterogeneous is when the catalyst and reactant exist in two different phases. Homogeneous is when the catalyst and the reactant are in the same phase..

synthesis reactions

One of the four major classes of chemical reactions, synthesis reactions are represented by important examples in organic synthesis, catalyzed chemistry, polymerizations and inorganic/organometallic chemistry. In the simplest case, a synthesis reaction occurs when two molecules combine to form a third, more complex product molecule. Often, synthesis reactions are more complex and require a thorough understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of the underlying chemistry, as well as carefully controlled reaction conditions.

Design of Experiments (DoE)

Design of Experiments (DoE) requires experiments to be conducted under well-controlled and reproducible conditions in chemical process optimization. Chemical synthesis reactors are designed to perform DoE investigations ensuring high quality data.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy For Real-Time Monitoring Of Chemical Reactions

Reaction mechanisms describe the successive steps at the molecular level that take place in a chemical reaction. Reaction mechanisms cannot be proven, but rather postulated based on empirical experimentation and deduction. In situ FTIR spectroscopy provides information to support reaction mechanisms hypotheses.

Organometallic Synthesis

Organometallic Synthesis, or Organometallic Chemistry, refers to the process of creating organometallic compounds, and is among the most researched areas in chemistry. Organometallic compounds are frequently used in fine chemical syntheses and to catalyze reactions. In situ Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are among the most powerful analytical methods for the study of organometallic compounds and syntheses.

Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical process by which nucleotides are specifically linked to form a desired sequenced product. The repetitive cyclic nature of the synthesis used in producing these biopolymers requires careful control of reaction variables, as well as step-wise reaction tracking and purity assurance to ensure that the desired sequence is attained. PAT methodology supports the development and production of these important biomolecules.

Alkylation is the process by when an alkyl group is added to a substrate molecule. There are many different alkylating reagents and types of alkylating reactions, and thus it is a widely used technique in organic chemistry. Alkylation is important for manufacturing in the petroleum and commodity chemicals industries, as well as in medicine, since many chemotherapy drugs are alkylating agents. The breadth of reaction types, conditions, and the economic importance of alkylation necessitates thorough understanding, control, and monitoring of alkylation reactions.

Epoxides are three member ethers having a highly strained ring structure containing two carbons and an oxygen. Because of the strain in this structure, epoxides are quite reactive and represent a valuable functional group for performing a variety of reactions. Due to this, epoxides are useful in polymer, pharmaceutical, and fine chemical syntheses.

The Suzuki and related cross-coupling reactions use transition metal catalysts, such as palladium complexes, to form C-C bonds between alkyl and aryl halides with various organic compounds. These catalyzed reactions are widely used methods to efficiently increase molecular complexity in pharmaceutical, polymer, and natural product syntheses. PAT technology is used to investigate cross-coupled reactions with regard to kinetics, mechanisms, thermodynamics, and the effect of reaction variables on performance and safety.

公佈欄

Publications on Synthetic Organic Chemistry

White Papers

Techniques to Synthesize Breakthrough Molecules
Advances in organic chemistry allow researchers to expand R&D of molecules and optimize process conditions. A new white paper presents 4 case studies...
超越圓底燒瓶的化學合成技術
Learn how to improve your organic synthesis!This white paper discusses new methodologies for organic synthesis including how to: Cool and heat without...
Metal Catalyzed Transformations Using In Situ Spectroscopy
This white paper reviews recent advances in organic chemistry using chemical reaction monitoring.
In Situ Monitoring of Chemical Reactions
'How to do more with less?' is a constant topic in chemical development laboratories as researchers need to quickly and cost-effectively deliver chemi...
Process FTIR For Safe Operation of Sodium Borohydride Reduction
John O'Reilly of Roche Ireland discusses sustainable Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system using Process FTIR for the safe operation of a sodium...
Real-Time Reaction Monitoring
Real time, in situ mid-FTIR reaction monitoring leads to a greater understanding of catalyst activity and robustness. Researchers at the University of...
Grignard Reaction Scale-up
Exothermic chemical reactions pose inherent risks – especially during scale-up. Published studies from top chemical and pharmaceutical companies show...
Rapid Analysis of Continuous Reaction Optimization Experiments
The white paper - Rapid Analysis of Continuous Reaction Optimization Experiments - discusses how to optimize chemical reactions.
3 Reaction Monitoring Case Studies
In this whitepaper, three case studies carried out at GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) demonstrate how probe-based and real-time FTIR instrumentation helped to c...
The Modern Synthesis Lab
This white paper discusses a new toolbox specifically designed for chemists that expands experimental options, automates tedious tasks and captures hi...
化學反應分析:總覽
本白皮書《原位反應分析:文獻綜述》檢視了 20 個應用原位 FTIR 光譜分析以全面瞭解反應的學術機構實例。
Reaction Insight from Every Experiment
This paper presents five examples taken from recent journal articles in which HPLC alone was not sufficient to provide the insight scientists needed....

Webinars

Hydrogenation Under High Pressure
This presentation discusses the implementation of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reaction monitoring technology to provide knowledge and understand...
Chemical Process Intensification Merck
Shane Grosser discusses how Merck's Process Development Intensification Laboratory develops new tools and methods to increase the speed and decrease t...
Reaction Kinetics Progress Analysis Ryan Baxter
This webinar explores a graphical analysis approach to rationalize unusual kinetics in C-H activations. The Reaction Progress Kinetic Analysis (RPKA)...
Hydrogenation Under High Pressure
This presentation discusses the implementation of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reaction monitoring technology to provide knowledge and understand...
DoE to Peptide Synthesis
Learn how Design of Experiments (DoE) is applied to chemical synthesis at Lonza Peptide.
New Radical Reactions Enabled by In Situ Reaction Monitoring
Presented by Professor Ryan Baxter of the University of California-Merced, this on-demand webinar discusses research that involved new radical reactio...
Process Development and Kinetic Understanding
Presented by Eric Moschetta, this on-demand webinar describes how AbbVie built a robust kinetic model to understand a late stage API process
Alkylation Reaction Development
Kevin Stone discusses how Merck Chemical Engineering Research & Development (CERD) leverages process fingerprinting tools in the development of an Alk...

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Synthetic Organic Chemistry Tools

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