Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is used to measure dimensional changes of a material as a function of temperature. Thermal expansion and effects such as softening, crystallization and solid-solid transitions determine the potential applications of a material and provide important information about its composition. Viscoelastic behavior can be studied by varying the applied force (DLTMA mode).
The TMA/SDTA 2+ incorporates Swiss precision mechanics and is available in four versions with furnace systems optimized for measurements between –150 and 1600 °C.
The TMA/SDTA 2 + is the only instrument on the market that measures the sample temperature very close to the sample in all operating modes. This enables temperature adjustment to be carried out using reference substances (e.g. the melting points of pure metals) or through a change in length. The SDTA signal is the difference between the measured sample temperature and the reference temperature calculated using a model. This means that besides the length change, the simultaneously measured SDTA signal is also available as a measurement quantity. In many cases, this can facilitate the correct interpretation of a measurement curve.
Wide measurement range
16 000 000 data points are available for the entire measurement range of ±5 mm. This means that both small and large samples (maximum 20 mm) can be measured with 0.5 nm resolution without the need for range switching.
The mechanical part of the measuring cell is accommodated in a thermostated housing. This guarantees excellent accuracy for the determination of expansion coefficients. Water from the circulator is also used to cool the furnace and reduce cooling times.
Defined furnace atmosphere
The furnace chamber can be purged with a defined gas. This process is software controlled, which makes it very easy to switch from an inert atmosphere to reactive conditions.
The TMA/SDTA 2+ can be used for a wide range of applications due to its broad temperature range and the wide choice of force parameters in compression and tension modes. As a result, the TMA/SDTA 2+ quickly provides characteristic information on numerous types of samples, for example very thin layers, large sample cylinders, fine fibers, films, plates, soft or hard polymers, and single crystals.
Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is the ideal addition to DSC. Besides the measurement of expansion coefficients, TMA is also an excellent technique for determining glass transitions that cannot be satisfactorily measured by DSC, for example materials with a high filler content. The penetration mode is ideal for characterizing the glass transitions of difficult samples such as very thin coatings.
SDTA Signal - Unsurpassed Temperature Accuracy
The TMA/SDTA 2+ is the only instrument on the market that measures the sample temperature very close to the sample in all operating modes. This enables temperature adjustment to be carried out using reference substances (e.g. the melting points of pure metals) or through a change in length.
One Click™ Technology
The touch-sensitive color terminal for the TMA/SDTA 1 presents clear and precise information and is easily seen from a distance. The patented One Click™ function allows you to start predefined measuring methods safely and easily from the terminal at the touch of a button.
DMA measurements can be performed under very different conditions to characterize the mechanical properties of materials. A great deal of information about a sample is obtained when the temperature, frequency or displacement amplitude is varied. The mechanical properties of composites or anisotropic materials can only be fully described by varying the direction of the deformation measurement or by using other measurement modes. This article discusses a number of typical examples.
The glass transition of semicrystalline polymers is often weak and difficult to measure by DSC. In this article, we show how a glass transition step of less than 0.1 J/g·K can be reproducibly determined using the DSC. The sample investigated was isotactic polypropylene (iPP) with a degree of crystallinity of 50%.
The TGA-GC/MS system can be used to investigate the composition of unknown samples. This is done by installing the IST16 storage interface between the TGA and the GC/MS. The interface allows up to 16 evolved gas samples to be stored at different furnace temperatures during the TGA measurement. The gas samples are analyzed and identified by GC/MS when the TGA analysis is finished. This article describes how a black polymer granule was characterized using this technique.
The mechanical properties of polymer-metal adhesive joints were studied as a function of the thickness of the adhesive layer using DMA. The glass transition temperature and the effective crosslinking density were evaluated from the shear modulus measurement curves. The results show that both quantities are strongly dependent on the thickness of the polymer layer. This is due to the formation of an interphase in the contact region of polymer and metal. The properties of the interphase depend on the metal used.
DMA measurements provide many different possibilities for characterizing materials. This article shows how DMA in combination with other thermal analysis techniques can be used to comprehensively characterize materials using different polymers as examples.measurement modes. This article discusses a number of typical examples.
Safety is an important aspect in process development in the chemical industry. This article, describes how reaction calorimetry and DSC can be used to quickly assess the thermal hazard potential of chemicals and chemical reactions.
In many applications, such as in cables or seals, rubber blends must possess both excellent mechanical properties and good flame-resistant properties. This article shows how flame resistance can be easily determined by TGA measurements and how the combination of mechanical and thermogravimetric measurements can be employed to optimize properties.
Photopolymerization is nowadays a widely used process. Systems are used for medical applications, for example in dentistry, for adhesive applications, in coating technology, and quite recently for 3D printing . This article describes how the curing behavior of a two-component UV-curing sample can be investigated.
Many different sorts of lipstick and mascara are nowadays available. The most important characteristics of these products are that the effect lasts a long time, that the products are easy to apply and easy to remove, and that they are physically and chemically stable and do not irritate the skin. The waxes and oils in lipstick are responsible for ease of application; carbon black is often used as pigment in mascara. Thermal analysis techniques allow the quality of these types of cosmetic products to be easily checked.
Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is one of the main constituents of bone replacement materials which find wide use in medical and dental applications for bone grafting and for implants. This article shows how TGA/DSC and TMA can be used to investigate the synthesis of tricalcium phosphate and to determine the transition temperatures of different TCP polymorphs.
When polymeric binders are used in paints with hydrophilic pigments such as titanium oxide, the pigments must be treated beforehand with polymers that are compatible with the binder. Otherwise, large agglomerates can form due to poor adhesion between the binder and the particles. This can lead to brittle films and fractures in the paint coating. This article shows how TGA and DSC can be used to determine important properties of the coating using titanium dioxide as an example.
For many practical applications, it is important to be able to quickly and reliably identify polymers. This article describes how semicrystalline polymers can be identified by measuring their melting points using DSC.
A thermobalance coupled to a suitable Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) system allows qualitative information to be obtained about the gaseous reaction or decomposition products formed in a TGA experiment in addition to purely quantitative information about mass changes. This new series of articles discusses the various measurement techniques that METTLER TOLEDO offers for such analyses.
The fluid bath DMA 1 option allows the influence of swelling on the dynamic mechanical properties of a sample to be measured in the temperature range 0 to 200 °C. This means that deformation conditions of components that are in direct contact with fluids can be simulated (for example drive or timing belts that permanently run in motor oil).
Crystalline pharmaceutical substances often decompose immediately before or during melting. To determine the glass transition temperature, the substance must be melted and then cooled as rapidly as possible so that decomposition and crystallization do not occur. In many cases, the heating and cooling rates of conventional DSCs are not high enough for this purpose. The METTLER TOLEDO Flash DSC however offers new possibilities. This is illustrated in this article using prednisolone as an example.
The interpretation and quantitative evaluation of thermal analysis measurement curves is difficult when several effects take place simultaneously. A number of methods are available that can be used to separate overlapping effects and analyze them individually afterward. Using suitable examples, we discuss strategies for DSC curves. A second article to be published in the next UserCom will cover TGA applications.
The shelf life of a packaged product, for example in the food sector, is often strongly influenced by the properties of the product packaging. An important factor here is the permeability of the product packaging toward water vapor. The ProUmid SPS and Vsorp sorption test systems in combination with special sample holders allow the transmission rate of water vapor through the packaging and the sorption rate of the packaged products to be determined experimentally.
TGA experiments in combination with a suitable evolved gas analysis (EGA) technique not only provide quantitative information about the change in mass of a sample but also qualitative information about the gaseous reaction or decomposition products that are evolved. In this series of articles, we will discuss the possibilities that METTLER TOLEDO offer.
DSC measurements can be performed up to about 700 °C using conventional DSC instruments. If higher temperatures are required, DSC curves can be measured up to 1600 °C using the TGA/DSC. This article compares DSC and TGA/DSC measurements and discusses how quantitative calorimetric measurements are possible in the high temperature region.
The first measurements of the thermal conductivity of powders  showed that powders can be an interesting alternative to vacuum systems for achieving good thermal insulation. Currently powders of different materials (ceramics or polymers) are used in packaging or for building insulation. On the other hand, the low thermal conductivity of powders entails serious risks in the production and manipulation of energetic powders intended for pyrotechnics or explosives. Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of powders is therefore crucial to avoid spontaneous ignition.
High demands are nowadays put on packaging materials. For example, depending on the application field, the materials must provide optimum barrier properties toward water vapor, oxygen or odorants. In addition, there are requirements regarding tear resistance, transparency and compatibility with the contents of the packaging. In this article, we show how the water vapor transmission rate of materials can be determined using a sorption test system.
The interpretation and evaluation of thermal analysis measurement curves is difficult when several effects take place simultaneously. A number of methods are available that can be used to separate overlapping effects and analyze them individually afterward. In this article, we discuss strategies for TGA curves using suitable examples.
Knowledge of the polymorphic forms of an active substance is very important, especially in the pharmaceutical industry. In this article, we show how previously unknown polymorphs of menthol can be identified and characterized by Flash DSC.
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