Thermoplastics – Characterization by Means of Thermal Analysis
On Demand Webinar

Thermoplastics – Characterization by Thermal Analysis

On Demand Webinar

Thermal analysis is ideal for characterizing the temperature–dependent properties of thermoplastics

thermoplastics
thermoplastics

Thermoplastic materials are widely used in many industries because of their unique properties, low weight, attractive price, and recycling possibilities. The four main techniques of thermal analysis, DSC, TGA, TMA, and DMA are ideal for characterizing such materials. The most important advantage is that properties can be measured as function of temperature or time over a wide temperature range, from –150 to 1600 °C.

In this Webinar, we will show how thermal analysis is used to analyze thermoplastic materials and will present some typical examples of samples measured by DSC, TGA, TMA, or DMA.

38:26 min
English

The Webinar covers the following topics:

  • Introduction
  • Basic properties of thermoplastics
  • Typical questions
  • Thermal analysis
  • Industries and applications
  • Instrumentation and applications
    - Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
    - Thermogravimetry (TGA)
    - Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)
    - Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)
  • Summary

Thermal analysis is an excellent method for identifying and characterizing thermoplastics because their properties are strongly dependent on temperature.

Thermoplastics
Thermoplastics soften on heating and can be molded into thousands of different shapes using methods such as injection molding or extrusion. Providing decomposition does not occur, the cycle of heating, molding, and cooling can be repeated very many times. This behavior distinguishes thermoplastics from elastomers or thermosets, which have are molded by means of an irreversible chemical reaction.

Among the most widely used thermoplastics are polyethylene, (PE), polypropylene, (PP), and polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate, (PET).

Techniques covered in the webinar
Different thermal analysis techniques that can be used to characterize thermoplastics. The most frequently used methods are DSC, TGA, TMA, and DMA.

The most important effects that can be analyzed by DSC are the glass transition, melting behavior, reaction enthalpies, and the influence of fillers.

For TGA, the main applications are content analysis, thermal stability and evaporation behavior.

TMA is normally used to study the expansion or shrinkage of materials.

DMA is the best method for characterizing viscoelastic behavior of materials.

Thermoplastics

Slide 0: Thermoplastics

 

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Welcome to the METTLER TOLEDO webinar on Thermoplastics.

 

Polymers can be classified according to their mechanical properties into three main classes, namely: thermoplastics,thermosets, and elastomers.

Thermoplastics is the most common class. Thermosets and elastomers will be covered in separate webinars.

 

Thermoplastics are solid when cold, but soften, flow, and melt on heating. This is why they are sometimes referred to as thermosoftening plastics.

 

Thermal analysis is an excellent method for identifying and characterizing thermoplastic materials because their properties are strongly dependent on temperature.

During the course of this webinar, I would like to describe a number of interesting application examples that demonstrate this.

 

Slide 1: Contents

The slide lists the topics that will be covered.

First, I want to discuss the most important thermal properties of thermoplastics and describe the thermal analysis techniques that can be used to measure these properties.

The techniques include:

Differential Scanning Calorimetry, or DSC as it is usually called;

Thermogravimetric Analysis, or TGA;

Thermomechanical Analysis, or TMA;

and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, or DMA.

 

I will then present a number of examples that illustrate how thermal analysis can be used to investigate the physical behavior of thermoplastic materials.

 

Finally, I will summarize the different thermal analysis techniques and their application fields and list a number of useful references for further information and reading.

 

Slide 2: Introduction

Thermoplastics soften on heating and can be molded into thousands of different shapes using methods such as injection molding or extrusion. Providing decomposition does not occur, the cycle of heating, molding, and cooling can be repeated very many times. This behavior distinguishes thermoplastics from elastomers or thermosets, which have are molded by means of an irreversible chemical reaction.

 

Among the most widely used thermoplastics are polyethylene, (PE), polypropylene, (PP), and polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate, (PET). The picture on the left shows PET bottles, which are used as containers for soft drinks.

 

The measurement curves on the right of the slide illustrate the different thermal analysis techniques that can be used to characterize thermoplastics like PET. As I have already mentioned, the most frequently used techniques are DSC, TGA, TMA, and DMA.

 

During the seminar, I will present more details about the different possibilities for testing materials.

 

Slide 3: Introduction

The slide summarizes DSC measurements of the glass transition and the melting peaks of the most commonly used thermoplastics.

 

The glass transition, and the melting point and melting range, are two of the most important properties of thermoplastics. The temperatures at which the glass transition and melting occur define the usable temperature range of manufactured parts and are important for defining processing conditions. The glass transition temperature and melting point are also used for identification purposes, for example in quality control.

 

The DSC curves on the left show the glass transitions of six different thermoplastic polymers. The glass transition temperatures are shown in the diagram and in the table below and can be used to distinguish between different polymers.

The other set of DSC curves on the right shows the melting range and melting peaks of some other thermoplastics. The temperatures of the peak maxima are displayed in the corresponding table. Here again, we see that the DSC melting curves provide a reliable way to identify polymers and check quality in production.

 

Slide 4: Thermoplastics

Thermoplastics consist of long-chain, linear macromolecules with no crosslinking.

 

The molecules may be randomly coiled, in which case they are said to be in the amorphous or glassy state.

 

Crystallization can however occur in some thermoplastics, although it is never complete due to restricted chain mobility. In this case, the solid material contains both amorphous and crystalline regions and is said to be semicrystalline. This means it is partly ordered and exhibits crystalline behavior. The amorphous part exhibits a glass transition - a transition from the solid to the liquid state - while the crystalline part melts.

The step height of the glass transition is a measure of the mobile amorphous content of the polymer.

 

Slide 5: Thermoplastics                                                   Molecular arrangement

Let’s have a closer look at the molecular arrangements of amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastics.

In the upper structure, the long-chain polymer molecules are randomly coiled. The material is completely amorphous.

The semicrystalline polymer is however more complex and consists of crystalline regions, as well as rigid and mobile amorphous regions. The polymer initially crystallizes to form chain-folded lamellae and finally microscopic crystals or rather crystallites. These differ markedly from the crystals of substances of low molecular weight.

 

An approximate value of the glass transition temperature can be calculated from the known melting point according the rule of thumb given at the bottom of the slide. For example, if the polymer has a melting point of 500 Kelvin or 226 degrees Celsius (226 °C), we can expect the glass transition temperature to be 0.66 of 500 Kelvin, in this case 330 Kelvin  or 57 degrees Celsius (57 °C).

 

Slide 6: Thermal Analysis

The ICTAC definition of thermal analysis is:

“A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature program”.

The schematic diagram on the right shows a simple linear temperature program.

 

The lower half of the slide illustrates typical events that occur when the sample is heated. For example, initial melting, in which the sample changes from the solid to the liquid state. If the sample is exposed to air or oxygen, it will start to oxidize and finally decompose. We use thermal analysis techniques to investigate these effects.

 

Slide 7: Thermal Analysis

The slide shows the most four most important techniques used in thermal analysis, to characterize thermoplastics, namely:

 

Differential Scanning Calorimetry, or DSC. This is the most widely used thermal analysis technique. The picture shows a DSC sensor with a crucible containing a sample (colored red), and a reference crucible.

 

Thermogravimetric Analysis, or TGA. The picture shows the TGA balance.

 

Thermomechanical Analysis, or TMA. The picture shows the sample area with a sample (colored red) and the quartz probe and sensor.

 

And finally, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, or DMA. The picture shows one of the several different sample-clamping assemblies.

 

I will explain these techniques in more detail in the following slides and describe some application examples.

 

Slide 8: Industries and Applications

Thermoplastics have very many potential applications and are used in practically all industries.

 

The table summarizes the industries and applications. It shows that thermal analysis is mainly used to measure the glass transition and melting behavior of thermoplastics in connection with process optimization or quality control.

The degree of crystallinity of a semicrystalline thermoplastic material is also an important application.

The modulus and damping behavior are usually measured by DMA.

 

Slide 9: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

Let’s begin with DSC. This technique allows us to determine the energy absorbed or released by a sample as it is heated or cooled.

 

DSC instruments exist in different versions depending on their temperature range, the type of sensor, and the available heating and cooling rates.

 

The standard METTLER TOLEDO DSC 1 instrument measures from minus one hundred and fifty degrees Celsius (–150 °C) to plus seven hundred degrees (700 °C) at heating rates of up to three hundred Kelvin per minute (300 K/min). Samples are normally measured in small crucibles made of aluminum, alumina or other materials, using sample amounts of two to twenty milligrams.

 

The METTLER TOLEDO Flash DSC 1 expands the heating rate to two million four hundred thousand Kelvin per minute (2,400,000 K/min) and the cooling rate to two hundred and forty thousand Kelvin per minute (240,000 K/min). To achieve this, the Flash DSC 1 uses very small sample sizes of about one hundred nanograms (100 ng) and no sample crucibles - the sample is in direct contact with the sensor. The ultra-fast heating and cooling rates allow industrial process conditions to be simulated in which materials undergo extremely rapidly cooling.

 

Another useful DSC technique is high-pressure DSC, or HPDSC for short. The METTLER TOLEDO HP DSC 1 can analyze samples under inert or reactive gases at pressures of up to ten megapascals (10 MPa). This suppresses undesired vaporization of samples or enables the stability of samples under increased oxygen pressures to be studied.

 

The schematic curve on the left shows a typical DSC measurement curve of a thermoplastic. Exothermic effects point in the upward direction and endothermic effects downward. The different effects are numbered next to the curve and explained in the table. These are:

One, the initial deflection or start-up transient of the DSC;

Two, the baseline where no thermal effects occur;

Three, a glass transition with enthalpy relaxation;

Four, cold crystallization;

Five, melting of the crystalline fraction; and finally

Six, oxidative exothermic decomposition.

 

Slide 10: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

DSC is used to study thermal behavior and events such as melting, solid-solid transitions, or chemical reactions.

 

The table summarizes the analytical applications of DSC for thermoplastic materials. The main applications have to do with melting behavior and the glass transition temperature. Several standard procedures are routinely used to determine oxidation stability and the influence of additives. DSC measurements also provide information about the composition and the thermal history of materials.

The picture on the right of the slide shows a view of an open DSC furnace with sample and reference crucibles. The standard crucibles are made of aluminum.

 

Slide 11: Application 1: DSC                                         PE: Characterization by Crystallinity

The first DSC application example displays the DSC melting curves of three different types of polyethylene. The top curve is low-density polyethylene (LD), the curve in the middle linear-low-density polyethylene (LLD), and the bottom curve high-density polyethylene (HD). The areas under the peaks correspond to the heat of fusion of the samples and are proportional to the amount of crystallites present in the sample. The degree of crystallinity is evaluated by comparing the measured heat of fusion with the known theoretical heat of fusion of two hundred and ninety-three Joules per gram (293 J/g) for 100% crystalline polyethylene.

 

 

Slide 12: Application 2: DSC                             Influence of chemical modification on Tg

The second application example shows the glass transition temperatures of three different samples of polyvinylchloride, or PVC for short, containing different amounts of chlorine.

The chlorine content influences the glass transition temperature. The higher the chlorine content, the more the glass transition temperature shifts to higher temperatures. At the same time, the transition extends over a wider temperature range, in this case from about thirty (30 °C) to more than seventy degrees Celsius (70 °C). 

 

Slide 13: Application 3: Flash DSC                                           PET reorganization

The next slide shows an application example involving the use of a ultra-fast scanning DSC instrument, the Flash DSC 1. This instrument allows measurements to be made at heating rates up to two million four hundred thousand Kelvin per minute (2,400,000 K/min). The sample amounts used are extremely small and are in the nanogram (ng) range.

 

The upper curve in the diagram was measured at 10 Kelvin per minute using a standard DSC instrument and shows the glass transition, cold crystallization, and melting that we discussed before. Cold crystallization and melting are reorganization processes that take time and are able to occur when the heating rate is low.

 

The lower curve measured at sixty thousand (60,000) degrees per minute using the Flash DSC 1 looks very different. At this much higher heating rate, only the glass transition is observed. Reorganization processes cannot occur because not enough time is available for crystallization. The material is thus measured unchanged, that is in the same state it was in before the measurement, or as delivered. The glass transition is shifted from about eighty degree Celsius (80 °C) to about one hundred degrees (100 °C) due to the heating rate-dependency of the glass transition.

 

We can draw two important conclusions from this result:

 

First, if you want to investigate the behavior of materials in technical processes, for example in crystallization processes in injection molding, the heating rates used for the measurement must be comparable to those that occur in the actual technical process.

 

Second, we need a DSC instrument that can measure at a very wide range of heating and cooling rates, in particular at high rates of about one hundred (100) to one thousand (1000) degrees per second. Conventional DSC instruments have a performance limitation because their maximum heating rates are only about several hundred degrees per minute. In other words, they are about one hundred times too slow. They do, however, have the advantage that larger samples can be measured in crucibles.

 

Slide 14: Application 4: HPDSC                                    OIT of polyolefines

Most polymers tend to degrade slowly due to chemical attack by atmospheric oxygen. A wide variety of compounds have therefore been developed to stabilize polymers.

 

In practice, different standard test methods are employed to check the stability of polymers toward oxygen. For example, the ASTM E1858 standard is used to measure the oxidation induction time, or OIT; and is recommended for testing polyolefines and their stabilizers.

 

In this particular example, samples of stabilized and non-stabilized polyethylene and polypropylene were measured in oxygen at a pressure of 3.5 mega-pascals under isothermal conditions at temperatures of 175 and 165 degrees Celsius respectively. The time from the start of the measurement to the onset of oxidation is the so-called oxidation induction time, or OIT.

OIT values allow us to compare the oxidative stability of materials and to assess just how effective different stabilizers are. Here, we see that the OIT values of the stabilized samples are much higher. A longer OIT indicates better stability.

 

The HPDSC technique therefore provides a good method to quickly estimate the efficiency of different stabilizers in thermoplastic materials.

 

Slide 15: Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

Now let’s turn our attention to thermogravimetric analysis, or TGA.

In this technique, the mass of a sample is continuously measured as it is heated or cooled in a defined atmosphere. We simply put a few milligrams of the sample in a crucible, weigh the sample, heat it and record the weight change. From this, we can obtain information about the composition of the sample such as the polymer and filler content.

 

The schematic curve on the left shows a typical TGA measurement curve of a thermoplastic. Initially, before the heating ramp begins, the TGA measures the mass of the sample. At the end of the measurement, inorganic fillers like silicates remain behind as a residue after heating to temperatures of one thousand degrees Celsius (1000 °C). The steps due to loss of mass give us valuable information about the composition of materials.

 

The steps are numbered next to the curve and explained in the table. These are:

One, heating begins and volatile components vaporize;

Two, pyrolysis of organic substances and polymers;

Three, at six hundred degrees Celsius (600 °C) the atmosphere is switched from nitrogen to oxygen to obtain oxidative conditions;

Four, carbon black or carbon fibers burn;

Five, inorganic fillers such as silicates are left behind as a residue.

 

Slide 16:Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

TGA is used to investigate processes like vaporization or decomposition. Evolved gases can be analyzed online using hyphenated techniques such as TGA-MS or TGA-FTIR.

 

The table summarizes the main analytical applications of TGA for thermoplastic materials. The technique provides information about the composition of samples including their filler content. Furthermore, it allows us to check the thermal or oxidative stability of products such as polyethylene pipes, or analyze the content of moisture or volatiles in formulated products.

 

The picture on the right side shows a view of the open furnace, a sample holder with two positions for the sample and reference crucibles in a TGA instrument. The standard crucibles are made of alumina.

 

Slide 17: Application 1: TGA/DSC                                             Composition by TGA

The first TGA application example is a common quality control measurement used to obtain information about the composition of thermoplastic samples.

In this case, a sample of polyethylene was heated from room temperature to nine hundred degrees Celsius (900 °C). At about three hundred degrees (300 °C), the sample starts to decompose and shows a large mass-loss step. A second much smaller step is observed at about six hundred and fifty degrees (650 °C) due to the combustion of carbon black. Evaluation of the results shows that the sample contains about 2.5% carbon black and leaves practically no residue.

 

Slide 18: Application 2: TGA/DSC                                              Moisture in PA 66

The second TGA application example shows the results of the analysis of a sample of polyamide PA 66 that had been saturated with water.

The upper diagram displays the TGA percentage weight-loss curve measured up to four hundred degrees Celsius (400 °C), and the lower diagram curve the corresponding first and second DSC heating runs up to three hundred degrees.

The TGA curve shows that the sample loses mass right from the start of the measurement. The process is due to loss of moisture. This was proven by integrating the broad endothermic peak that begins at room temperature and ends at about two hundred and forty degrees (240 °C) in the first DSC run. The percentage content of water in the sample was calculated to be about 4% using a value of two thousand four hundred Joules per gram (2400 J/g) at forty degrees Celsius (40 °C) for the enthalpy of evaporation of water. The result agrees well with the measured weight-loss of three point six percent (3.6%) on the TGA curve.

The broad endothermic peak is no longer observed in the second run of the same sample after cooling, only the melting peak of polyamide.

 

Slide 19: Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)

We now move on to thermomechanical analysis, or TMA. This technique measures the dimensional changes of a sample as it is heated or cooled.

 

The schematic curve on the left shows a typical TMA measurement curve of a thermoplastic. The different effects are numbered next to the curve and explained in the table. These are:

One, expansion below the glass transition;

Two, the glass transition point at which the rate of expansion changes;

Three, expansion above the glass transition; the steeper slope indicates a greater rate of expansion;

Four, softening with plastic deformation;

 

Slide 20: Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)

The table summarizes the analytical applications of TMA for thermoplastic materials.

The main application is the determination of the expansion behavior and the coefficient of thermal expansion, or CTE.

The technique is also excellent for determining the glass transition temperature, and for studying softening behavior, creep, or swelling in solvents. The picture on the right shows the typical experimental setup with a ball-point probe in contact with the sample specimen.

The following slides describe some common application examples.

 

Slide 21: Application 1: TMA/SDTA                              PET dilatometry mode

The first TMA application is a measurement performed in the dilatometry mode.

 

If we want to obtain reliable information about the expansion or shrinkage of a material and determine the coefficient of thermal expansion, we can only apply very small forces to the probe in contact with the sample – otherwise the probe penetrates into the sample as soon as it softens.

In this example, the sample was polyethylene terephthalate, or PET, which is widely used to manufacture plastic bottles. In this experiment, a 0.5-mm thick disk of the material was inserted between two silica discs. The sample was first heated to ninety degrees Celsius (90 °C) in the instrument to erase thermal history, and then cooled to room temperature. The actual experiment was performed between thirty (30) and three hundred and ten degrees (310 °C) at a heating rate of twenty Kelvin per minute (20 K/min) using a force of zero point zero zero five Newtons (0.005 N) acting on the ball-point probe. The resulting curve is displayed in the upper part of the diagram.

The lower curve shows the evaluation of the expansion coefficient. At the beginning of the measurement, the sample expands rather slowly. Below the glass transition temperature, the sample is hard. Above the glass transition temperature, the molecules are freer to move and sample expands more rapidly. Cold crystallization then occurs and the sample shrinks. Above one hundred and fifty degrees (150 °C), the sample expands further until it begins to melt at about two hundred and thirty degrees (230 °C).

 

Slide 22: Application 2: TMA/SDTA                             DLTMA of PET

The second TMA application is an example of dynamic-load thermomechanical analysis, or DLTMA.

The technique is an extremely sensitive method for detecting physical properties of thermoplastics. In contrast to DSC, it characterizes the mechanical behavior of materials. In DLTMA, an alternating force at a particular frequency is applied to the sample.

The technique can detect weak effects, expansion, and the elasticity or elastic modulus of samples. The higher the stiffness of the sample, the smaller the amplitude is in the DLTMA curve.

The curve in the diagram shows the measurement of a sample of polyethylene terephthalate. The glass transition temperature occurs at about seventy-one degrees Celsius (71 °C) and is followed by increased expansion in the liquid state. The amplitude increases dramatically because the material is now soft. After this, cold crystallization begins with the formation of crystallites. As a result, the amplitude decreases as the sample becomes harder and simultaneously shrinks. At one hundred and forty degrees (140 °C), the sample is again hard and shows further expansion up to one hundred and sixty degrees (160 °C).

 

Slide 23 TMA/SDTA                                                                       Shrinkage of PET

This slide shows the measurement of a PET fiber in the tension mode.

 

Below about seventy-five degrees Celsius (75 °C), the fiber is in the glassy state and is dimensionally stable.

Above this temperature, the sample starts to shrink due to the increased mobility of the molecules. The orientation of the molecules induced in the stretching process during the production of the fiber is gradually destroyed.

The rate of shrinkage increases as the melting temperature is approached. The minimum length is reached at about two hundred and fifty-five degrees (255 ºC). The viscosity of the sample then decreases dramatically and the sample begins to flow.

 

Slide 24:Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

Dynamic mechanical analysis is a technique that is used to measure the mechanical properties of a viscoelastic material as a function of time, temperature and frequency when the material is deformed under a periodic oscillating stress.

 

The schematic diagram on the left shows the results of a DMA measurement of a thermoplastic measured in the shear mode. The curves display the storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″),and tan delta as a function of temperature.

The different effects are numbered next to the curve and explained in the table. These are:

One, secondary relaxation, observed as a peak in tan delta;

Two, the glass transition, seen as a decrease in the storage modulus;

Three, cold crystallization begins with increasing temperature;

Four, recrystallization accompanied by a peak in tan delta;

Five, melting of the crystalline fraction with a decrease in the storage modulus;

 

Slide 25: Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

The table lists the main analytical applications of DMA for thermoplastics.

In general, DMA provides information about the mechanical modulus, compliances, and damping and viscoelastic behavior. The glass transition temperature, softening temperatures, or beta relaxation processes are detected as peaks in tan delta or through changes in the modulus.

The picture on the right shows a sample installed in the DMA ready for measurement in the bending mode.

 

Slide 26: Application 1: DMA                              Glass transition of polystyrene

The first DMA application displays the results obtained from the measurement of a sample of polystyrene from minus one hundred and forty degrees Celsius (–140 °C) to plus two hundred degrees (200°C). From top to bottom, the diagram shows the curves of the storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″), and tan delta.

Two main effects are observed. Below zero degrees (0 °C), beta or secondary relaxation is clearly visible in the tan delta curve. This relaxation process is due to the movement of short segments in a polymer.

The main effect is the glass transition temperature at about one hundred degrees (100 °C), 

 

Slide 27: Application 2: DMA                   Secondary relaxation of a polycarbonate

 The second DMA application summarizes the results obtained from a hard polycarbonate sample, in particular the secondary relaxation and its frequency dependence

A very thin sample with a thickness of zero point three millimeters (0.3 mm) was measured in the low temperature range simultaneously at frequencies of 10, 100 and 200 Hz. The upper diagram shows the three storage modulus curves and below these, the corresponding loss modulus curves. The lower diagram displays the tan delta curves. These exhibit a clear frequency-dependence. The higher the frequency, the more the glass transition temperature shifts to higher temperatures.

 

Slide 28: Summary

The table summarizes the most important events that characterize thermoplastic materials as well as the techniques recommended for investigating the effects. A box marked red means that the technique is strongly recommended; a box marked blue indicates that the technique can also be used.

 

The most important effects that can be analyzed by DSC are the glass transition, melting behavior, reaction enthalpies, and the influence of fillers.

 

For TGA, the main applications are content analysis, thermal stability and evaporation behavior.

 

TMA is normally used to study the expansion or shrinkage of materials.

 

DMA is the best method for characterizing viscoelastic behavior of materials.

 

Slide 29: Summary

This slide summarizespresents an overview of the temperature ranges of the METTLER TOLEDO DSC, TGA, TMA, and DMA instruments

 

In general, DSC experiments are performed at temperatures between minus one hundred and fifty degrees Celsius (–150 °C) and plus seven hundred degrees (700 °C). The temperature ranges may be different if special equipment or accessories are used.

 

TGA measurements normally begin at room temperature. The maximum possible temperature is about sixteen hundred degrees (1600 °C).

 

TMA experiments can be performed between minus one hundred and fifty degrees Celsius (–150) and plus eleven hundred degrees (1100 °C).

 

DMA samples are measured in the range minus one hundred and fifty degrees Celsius (–150 °C) to plus six hundred degrees (600 °C).          

 

Slide 30: For More Information on Thermoplastics

Finally, I would like to draw your attention to information about thermoplastics that you can download from the Internet.

METTLER TOLEDO publishes articles on thermal analysis and applications from different fields twice a year in UserCom, the well-known METTLER TOLEDO biannual technical customer magazine. Back issues can be downloaded as PDFs from www.mt.com/usercoms as shown in the middle of the slide. A compilation of applications can be found in the “Thermoplastics” and the “Thermal Analysis in Practice” handbooks.

 

Slide 31: For More Information on Thermal Analysis

In addition, you can download details about webinars, application handbooks or information of a more general nature from the Internet addresses given on this slide.

 

Slide 32: Thank You

This concludes my presentation on thermoplastics. Thank you very much for your interest and attention.

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