Thermal Analysis of Nanomaterials
On Demand Webinar

Thermal Analysis of Nanomaterials

On Demand Webinar

"Thermal Analysis of Nanomaterials" describes methods that can be used to characterize nanomaterials

Thermal Analysis of Nanomaterials
Thermal Analysis of Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials are being more and more frequently used to obtain materials with special bulk properties. These new materials are employed in many different application fields.
The four main techniques of thermal analysis, DSC, TGA, TMA, and DMA, can be used to measure the properties of the original nanomaterial or the modified bulk material as function of temperature or time over a wide temperature range, from –150 to 1600 °C.

In this Webinar, we will show how thermal analysis is used to investigate nanomaterials and present some typical examples measured by DSC, Flash DSC, TGA, TMA or DMA.

38:56 min
English

The Webinar covers the following topics:

  • Introduction
  • Basic properties of nanomaterials
  • Typical questions
  • Thermal analysis
  • Industries and applications
  • Instrumentation and applications
    - DSC
    - Flash DSC
    - TGA
    - TMA
    - DMA
  • Summary

In the webinar titled "Thermal Analysis of Nanomaterials", we describe a number of techniques and methods that can be used to characterize these materials and their effects.

Properties and uses of nanomaterials

Nanomaterials have very diverse properties: These are made use of in many applications.  For example, inefficient or unfavorable chemical reactions can sometimes be improved by means of catalysts. Catalytic activity is usually increased with nanoparticles because of their greatly increased surface area.

Mechanical properties can also be changed using nanoparticles. This is done by mixing a certain amount of nanoparticles in with the bulk material, which then changes the mechanical properties of the matrix.

Anti-bacterial properties are used in the manufacture of clothing that is marketed as “odor-free”. The clothing is impregnated with silver nanoparticles. This kills any bacteria present on the skin thereby stopping the production of unpleasant odors.

The small size of nanoparticles also makes them ideal as nucleating agents for larger molecules that would otherwise have difficulty crystallizing on their own.

Nanomaterials can also be materials that have functional geometries on a nanoscale, for example silica gels or molecular sieves.

Some magnetic properties may also depend on particle size. If a particle made of a ferromagnetic material becomes too small, the activation energy needed to change its direction of magnetization becomes low enough for the magnetization to change at room temperature.

 

Thermal analysis of nanomaterials

The most important effects that can be analyzed by DSC are the glass transition, melting, crystallization behavior, reaction enthalpies and kinetics, and the influence of fillers.

For TGA, the main applications are content analysis and thermal stability.

TMA is normally used to study the expansion or shrinkage of materials.

DMA is the best method for characterizing the frequency-, force-, and amplitude-dependent mechanical behavior of materials.

Thermal Analysis of Nanomaterials

Thermal Analysis of Nanomaterials

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Welcome to the METTLER TOLEDO webinar on the Thermal Analysis of Nanomaterials.

Nanomaterials are nowadays widely used in many different fields. Thermal analysis offers a number of techniques and methods that can be used to characterize these materials and their effects.

During the course of this webinar, I would like to describe a number of interesting application examples that demonstrate this.

Contents

The slide lists the different topics I would like to cover.

I want to start with a brief introduction to nanomaterials and then look at some of the thermal properties that can be characterized.

I will then present some specific applications of nanomaterials measured using different thermal analysis techniques.

Finally, I will summarize the different thermal analysis techniques and their application fields and list a number of useful references for further information and reading.

Introduction

Nanomaterials usually have a particle size between 1 and 100 nanometers in at least one dimension. The defining feature of nanomaterials, however, is that their macroscopic properties change below a certain particle size.

 

One well-known example is the influence of the size of gold nanoparticles on the appearance of a colloidal gold solution. With increasing nanoparticle size, the color of the solution changes from red to violet.

Another example concerns composite materials, where nanoparticles added to the matrix change the behavior and performance of the composite.

 

A macroscopic effect that can be detected by DSC measurements is the influence of nanofiller additives on polymer materials. A typical example of this is polybutylene terephthalate or PBT, shown as pellets on the left.

The diagram on the right displays DSC cooling curves of two different types of PBT; one sample with a nanofiller, and the other without any nanofiller. The upper and lower curves were recorded at very different cooling rates.

The cooling curves in the lower part of the diagram were in fact measured using the Flash DSC 1 at a cooling rate similar to that which occurs in the manufacturing process. The cooling curve of the PBT material without the nanofiller exhibits two different crystallization processes, which is not desired in practice.

 

Nanomaterials: Categorization

As we have already seen in the previous slide, nanomaterials are not only used as pure materials, but mainly as components in composite materials.

The slide gives an overview of the main types of nanomaterials that are encountered in practice.

 

First, there are the pure nanomaterials: The material itself is nanostructured and exhibits its desirable behavior due to its nanostructure. This can, for example, be the result of surface effects on the nanoparticles themselves, as with inorganic catalysts. It can also be due to nanostructuring in bulk materials, such as polymers or metals with nanosized crystallites present in the matrix.

 

Second, the nanomaterial can be present as a thin film or coating or as a nanofiber. In this case, only one or maximum two dimensions of the material are on a nanoscale.

An example of this is a photocatalytic and hydrophobic titanium oxide coating on a glass windowpane to reduce soiling.

 

Third, there are nanoporous materials, which contain pores or cavities on the nanometer scale. A good example of this is molecular sieves.

 

The fourth and last category is what we have already seen in the example in the previous slide - materials with a nanostructure are added to other materials to change the macroscopic behavior of the materials. Better crystallization characteristics or more favorable decomposition behavior of materials are typical applications.

Nanomaterials: Properties and Uses

Nanomaterials have very diverse properties: These are made use of in many applications, some of which are listed in the slide.

 

Inefficient or unfavorable chemical reactions can sometimes be improved by means of catalysts. Catalytic activity is usually increased through the use of nanoparticles because of their greatly increased surface area. This can even be true for materials where the bulk material does not show any catalytic effects, for example gold.

 

Mechanical properties can also be changed using nanoparticles. This is done by mixing a certain amount of nanoparticles in with the bulk material, which then changes the mechanical properties of the matrix. A well-known example of this is the use of carbon nanotubes to strengthen different kinds of material used for car components or high-end racing-bicycles.

 

Anti-bacterial properties are used in the manufacture of clothing that is marketed as “odor-free”. The clothing is impregnated with silver nanoparticles. This kills any bacteria present on the skin thereby stopping the production of unpleasant odors.

 

The small size of nanoparticles also makes them ideal as nucleating agents for larger molecules that would otherwise have difficulty crystallizing on their own. The presence of suitable nucleating agents guarantees the formation of a more homogeneous end-product with better quality.

 

Nanomaterials can also be materials that have functional geometries on a nano-scale, for example silica gels or molecular sieves. These materials have pores that are small enough to take-up and store water, solvent molecules, or active pharmaceutical ingredients. The absorption and retention of guest molecules can be varied by changing the pore size and structure of the molecular sieve.

 

Some magnetic properties may also depend on particle size. If a particle made of a ferromagnetic material becomes too small, the activation energy needed to change its direction of magnetization becomes low enough for the magnetization to change at room temperature. Since ferromagnetic particles are used on computer hard disks, particle size is an important issue and nanoparticles are not always desired.

 

Thermal Analysis

Some of the properties of nanomaterials can be studied by thermal analysis.

 

The official ICTAC definition describes thermal analysis as

“A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature program”.

 

The schematic diagram on the right shows a simple temperature program.

 

The lower half of the slide illustrates typical events that can occur when a substance is heated. For example initial melting, in which the sample changes from the solid to the liquid state. If the sample is exposed to air or oxygen, it will start to oxidize and finally decompose.

We use thermal analysis techniques to investigate effects like these.

Thermal Analysis

The slide shows the four most important techniques used in thermal analysis, namely DSC, TGA, TMA and DMA.

 

Differential Scanning Calorimetry or DSC is the most widely used thermal analysis technique.

Different DSC instruments and techniques are available, for example the HPDSC for high-pressure measurements, the Flash DSC for fast heating and cooling rates, or temperature-modulated techniques such as TOPEM.

 

Thermogravimetric Analysis or TGA measures the mass, and change in mass of a sample as a function of temperature in a defined atmosphere. Several hyphenated techniques are available to analyze volatile gaseous decomposition products, for example TGA combined with mass spectrometry or with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

 

Thermomechanical Analysis or TMA measures dimensional changes or changes in the mechanical behavior of a sample as a function of temperature.

 

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis or DMA measures the mechanical properties of a material as a function of time, temperature and frequency while it is subjected to a periodic stress.

 

I will explain these techniques in more detail in the following slides and describe some typical application examples.

Industries and Applications

Nanomaterials have numerous potential applications and are being used in more and more industries.

 

The table summarizes some of the industries and applications. It shows that thermal analysis is frequently used to measure the effect of nanoparticles on bulk materials.

 

An example of such an analysis is to evaluate how different nanomaterials influence the mechanical properties of car tires. The nanofiller in the rubber of the tire determines the hardness of the tire and thus its grip on the road, as well as the wear and tear.

A second example is the evaluation the catalytic effect of nanoparticles on chemical reactions. 

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

Now, let’s take a closer look at DSC.

This technique allows us to determine the energy absorbed or released by a sample as it is heated or cooled.

 

DSC instruments exist in different versions depending on their temperature range, their heating and cooling rates, and the type of sensor used:

 

The standard METTLER TOLEDO DSC instrument measures at heating rates of up to several hundred Kelvin per minute. Samples are measured in small crucibles made of aluminum, alumina or other materials, using sample amounts of two to twenty milligrams.

 

The METTLER TOLEDO Flash DSC 1 expands the heating rate to roughly two million Kelvin per minute and the cooling rate to two hundred thousand Kelvin per minute. To achieve this, the Flash DSC 1 uses very small sample sizes of about one hundred nanograms and no sample crucibles - the sample is in direct contact with the sensor. The ultra-fast heating and cooling rates allow industrial process conditions to be simulated in which materials undergo extremely rapid cooling. This allows metastable materials to be studied.

 

Another useful DSC technique is high-pressure DSC, or HPDSC for short. The METTLER TOLEDO HP DSC 1 can analyze samples under inert or reactive gases at pressures of up to ten mega-pascals. The elevated pressure suppresses undesired vaporization of samples or enables the stability of samples to be studied under increased oxygen pressures.

 

The schematic curve on the left shows a schematic DSC measurement curve with a number of typical effects that are observed depending on the sample studied. Exothermic effects point in the upward direction and endothermic effects downward.

The different effects are numbered next to the curve and explained in the table. The most important of these are

three, the glass transition with enthalpy relaxation,

four, cold crystallization or polymorphism,

five, melting of the crystalline fraction

and six, at the end of the curve, exothermic decomposition.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

DSC is used to study phase transitions or thermal events such as melting or chemical reactions.

 

The table summarizes the analytical applications of DSC for nanomaterials.

The influence of nanoparticles on the bulk material can be detected via changes in the glass transition, and in the melting or crystallization behavior.

The decomposition temperature or decomposition time provide information about the stability of the bulk material. Chemical reaction and kinetic measurements give an insight into the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles. The pore size determines the suitability for the uptake, storage and transport of substances.

 

I will now present some examples of DSC applications for nanomaterials.

Application 1: DSC                    Kinetics of nanocrystallization

The first application has to do with the crystallization behavior of an amorphous metal alloy consisting of iron, silicon and boron. The nanocrystallites formed during this process determine the soft-magnetic properties of the material and hence the usefulness of the material for electrical applications such as power supplies, transformers or amplifiers.

The diagram displays DSC heating curves of the amorphous alloy measured at different heating rates. The exothermic peak due to the formation of the iron-silicon nanocrystallites is labeled 'Peak 1'.

 

The amorphous material was prepared by means of rapid cooling in a melt-spinning production process.

Several specimens of this material were subsequently heated to 700 degrees Celsius (700 °C) in platinum crucibles in the DSC at various heating rates between 5 and 80 Kelvin per minute (5 K/min and 80 K/min).

The amorphous material begins to crystallize from about 470 degrees (470 °C) onward depending on the heating rate. With increasing heating rates, the maximum of the crystallization peak shifts to higher temperatures. The relationship between the crystallization temperature and the heating rate yields information on the activation energy of the crystallization process.

 

The highly asymmetric shape of the crystallization peak indicates that the crystallization kinetics cannot be described by simple kinetic models. The measurement curves were therefore analyzed using the advanced-model-free-kinetics-option of the Star (STARe) Software. The evaluation determines the apparent activation energy and indicates that the processes that occur in the earlier and latter stages of the cold crystallization are different. The additional information obtained about the behavior of the material can be used to optimize production processes.

You can find further details on this particular application in UserCom 30.

Application 2: DSC  FDSC of polymers with nucleating agents

In the previous slide, we measured a material that exhibits reorganization on a timescale similar to that of a conventional DSC measurement. Materials with more rapid reorganization need an instrument that measures much faster. These faster reorganization processes can be measured using the METTLER TOLEDO Flash DSC 1.

 

The slide shows DSC cooling curves of a material in which very fast processes are important. The samples were polyamide 11 with 5% nanofiller and polyamide 11 without any nanofiller. Very high cooling rates are reached in the molding process of the polyamide in manufacturing. It is important to understand the crystallization processes that take place at these high cooling rates because the resulting molecular structure determines important macroscopic properties such as the flexibility and transparency of the end-product. 

 

The two polyamide samples with and without nanofiller were measured in the conventional METTLER TOLEDO DSC 1 and in the ultra-fast Flash DSC 1. The red curves were obtained using the polyamide 11 without the nanofiller and the black curves from the polyamide with 5% nanofiller. The addition of the nanofiller facilitates crystallization and creates more and smaller crystallites; the material becomes more pliable and less brittle.

 

When we compare the conventional DSC curves in the upper part of the diagram, we see that the crystallization of the two polyamide samples is very similar at a cooling rate of 10 Kelvin per minute (10 K/min). Crystallization is slightly faster in the material without the nanofiller, which might at first sight suggest that there is no benefit to be gained by adding the nanofiller.

However, a different picture emerges when we measure the crystallization at cooling rates similar to those that occur in the manufacturing process. The two bottom curves show that the material with 5% nanofiller does indeed crystallize significantly faster than the material without the nanofiller. The addition of the nanofiller therefore provides the desired material properties.

 

Application 3:                                        DSC thermoporosimetry

In order to use nanoporous materials effectively, it is important to quantify the size and size-distribution of the nanopores present in the material. If these parameters are known, the sorption capacity for target molecules can be deduced and used in product development. The parameters can be determined by a technique known as DSC thermoporosimetry. The principle is illustrated on this slide using silica gel as an example.

 

The technique makes use of the relationship between crystal size and melting point. If smaller pores are present, the crystals in the pores are smaller and the melting point for smaller crystals is lower. By filling the pores of the specimen with water and measuring the melting points of the different crystal sizes, we can obtain information about the dimensions of the pores and about the pore-size distribution.

 

The size distribution measurement is performed by saturating a sample with water and measuring it in the DSC using a heating program with a stepwise temperature increment. At a certain isothermal temperature the smallest crystals will melt. Larger and larger crystals melt successively with every temperature increase in the DSC. The more crystallites of a particular size there are in the porous system, the larger the total enthalpy of melting measured during that particular isothermal segment.

 

This can be seen in the slide as a Gaussian distribution of pore sizes. The large peak at zero degrees Celsius is the melting of excess water present in the sample but outside any of the pores.

The experimental results showed that most of the pores in this sample of silica gel had pore sizes of about 8 nanometers.

You can find further details on this application in UserCom 12.

Application 4:    TOPEM measurement of a sucrose solution

An important issue for nanosized structures is their stability. In this example, temperature-modulated DSC was used to study the stability of nanocrystals formed on heating in a sucrose-water solution containing 40% sucrose.

 

The temperature-modulated measurement technique has two advantages for this type of experiment:

First, the various overlapping effects observed in the conventional DSC heat flow curve can be separated using temperature-modulated techniques such as TOPEM.

The second advantage is that the melting of stable and unstable crystals can be distinguished because the melting of nanosized, unstable-crystals is a non-reversing effect whereas the melting of larger, stable crystals is a reversing effect.

 

The sample was first prepared by cooling from room temperature to minus 100 degrees Celsius at a cooling rate of 2 Kelvin per minute. During this process, ice crystals formed and the sucrose-water solution changed to a glass.

On heating, a broad glass transition was observed in the reversing heat flow curve at about minus 45 degrees. A small endothermic peak due to enthalpy relaxation can also be seen in the non-reversing heat flow curve at about the same temperature.

 

After the glass transition, molecular mobility increases and small amounts of water separate from the sugar-water solution and form crystallites with dimensions on the nanometer scale. This effect is shown by the exothermic peak at about minus 38 degrees in the non-reversing heat flow curve. These unstable water crystals subsequently melt at about minus 34 degrees.

In the reversing heat flow curve, the melting of the large, stable crystals becomes apparent after the glass transition.

This example illustrates how TOPEM can be used to investigate the formation and subsequent melting of unstable nanocrystals.

Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

Now let’s turn our attention to Thermogravimetric Analysis, or TGA.

 

In this technique, the mass of a sample is continuously measured as it is heated or cooled in a defined atmosphere. We simply put a few milligrams of the sample into a crucible, weigh the sample, heat it and record the mass change. From this, we can obtain information about the composition of the sample, such as the polymer and filler content.

 

The schematic curve on the left shows a schematic TGA curve with some typical effects. Initially, before the heating ramp begins, the TGA measures the mass of the sample. At the end of the measurement, inorganic substances remain behind as a residue after heating to temperatures of one thousand degrees Celsius or more. The steps due to loss of mass provide valuable information about the composition of materials.

 

The different steps are numbered next to the curve and explained in the table, namely

One, heating begins and volatile components vaporize;

Two, pyrolysis of organic substances and polymers;

Three, at about six hundred degrees Celsius, the atmosphere is switched from nitrogen to oxygen or air to obtain oxidative conditions;

Four, oxidative decomposition;

Five, inorganic matter is left behind as a residue.

 

Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

TGA is used to investigate processes such as vaporization and decomposition and to perform compositional analysis. Volatile products released by the sample can be analyzed online using hyphenated techniques such as TGA-MS or TGA-FTIR.

 

The table summarizes some of the analytical applications of TGA for nanomaterials. The technique provides information about the stability of pure nanomaterials, or the influence they have on the stability of the matrix in which they are embedded. It also yields information about surface desorption or adsorption of nanoparticles, or the content of inorganic nanoparticles in a bulk matrix.

 

The picture on the right side shows a view of the open furnace, a sample holder with two positions for the sample and reference crucibles in a TGA instrument. The standard crucibles are made of alumina.

Application 1: TGA         Thermal stability of different fillers

Nanofillers are often added to elastomers to change the mechanical properties of the resulting composite material. The change in mechanical properties is greater if the interaction between nanofiller and elastomer is closer. Better interaction is achieved when a larger surface area of the nanofiller is in contact with the elastomer. The surface area of nanofillers gives an indication of their usefulness for a particular application.

 

Since the combustion behavior of carbon black also depends on its effective surface area, the combustion behavior can be used to estimate the surface area and hence the potential usefulness of different types of nanofillers. The greater the surface area of the carbon black particles, the more likely they are to burn. The combustion temperature can thus be used to quickly test the quality of a nanofiller.

 

The diagram displays TGA combustion curves of four samples of carbon black with different surface areas. The surface area was independently measured using the adsorption of di-butyl phthalate. This yields the so-called DBP-value. If the surface area is large, the sorption or DBP-value will also be large. Filler materials with larger DBP-values are therefore expected to have lower combustion temperatures. The measurements were performed in air in order to achieve better separation of the combustion onset points of the carbon black samples.

 

The TGA mass-loss curves clearly show that the combustion temperature for the carbon black does indeed depend on the surface area. The plot of the half-step temperature, T, from the TGA evaluation versus the DBP value in the lower left corner shows that the combustion temperature decreases linearly with increasing surface area.

 

The thermal degradation behavior can therefore be used to compare different carbon black materials with regard to their surface areas or particle sizes.

Application 2: TGA                     TGA-Sorption of desiccants

In general, materials exchange matter with the atmosphere of their immediate surroundings. This behavior is even more pronounced for nanoparticles with their large surface area, and is of great scientific interest.

 

The exchange can be in the form of the sorption of gasses or liquids on particle surfaces, or internally in nanocavities. The sorption behavior can be investigated by measuring the mass of the sample against time using thermogravimetric analysis. The mass of the test specimen changes as the substance of interest adsorbs or desorbs. Sorption models can then be fitted to the measured mass-loss data. 

 

The experiment in this slide was performed in a TGA/DSC 1 equipped with a humidity generator connected to the furnace of the TGA. The relative humidity of the atmosphere in the TGA furnace can be set to a particular value and changed during the course of the experiment. The mass of the sample is continuously measured as the sample adsorbs or desorbs water.

 

In this experiment, a zeolite sample was analyzed with regard to water adsorption. Zeolites are porous systems with pore sizes ranging from several Ångströms to the nanometer scale.

The zeolite sample was exposed to humidity levels that were increased in steps from 3 to 70 percent (3% to 70%) relative humidity. The set relative humidity and measured relative humidity curves lie almost on top of one another. The TGA curve in the middle records the increase in mass. The simultaneously recorded DSC curve from the TGA/DSC 1 allows the sorption enthalpy to be evaluated.

 

The data obtained can be used to generate sorption isotherms and perform further calculations, for example, to simulate monolayer or multilayer sorption behavior according to BET or GAB theories and gain a better understanding of the sorption behavior of nanoporous materials.

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis or DMA measures the mechanical properties of a viscoelastic material as a function of time, temperature and frequency when the material is deformed under a periodic, oscillating stress.

 

The schematic diagram on the left shows the results of a DMA measurement of a thermoplastic material measured in the shear mode. The curves display the storage modulus, gee prime, (G′), the loss modulus, gee double-prime, (G″),and tan delta as a function of temperature.

 

The different steps are numbered next to the curve and explained in the table, namely

one, secondary relaxation,

two, glass transition,

three, cold crystallization,

four, recrystallization

and five, melting.

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

The table summarizes some of the analytical applications of DMA for nanomaterials

 

The main application is to determine the effect of nanofillers on the material matrix in which they are embedded.

 

DMA can provide information about the filler content, the type of filler, the mechanical properties defined by the fillers used, and the measurement of properties of composite materials.

 

The picture on the right shows a sample installed in the DMA ready for measurement in the bending mode.

Application 1: DMA                    Anisotropic filler properties      

The slide shows DMA curves of a rubber matrix containing a modified montmorillonite nanofiller. The nanofiller has a platelet structure and is not isotropic. Since the composite material was made by rolling in the x-direction, orientation of the platelets was expected in the direction of flow. This means that the nanofiller will have a different effect on the bulk material depending on the orientation of the bulk material. Measurements were therefore performed with different sample orientations.

 

Two sample specimens were prepared perpendicular to the layer structure, one sample from the xz plane, one sample from the yz plane. The filler platelets were oriented either at right angles to, or parallel to, the direction of displacement. The correlation between the material and the measurement orientations is shown in the top right corner of the slide. 

 

The diagram displays the resulting four DMA curves of the shear storage modulus versus temperature. The black and blue curves show the measurements in the direction parallel to the platelets, and the red and green curves the measurements at right angles to the platelets. The results show that the specimens with platelets oriented parallel to the shear direction have a larger modulus value.

 

You can find further details concerning this application in UserCom 27.

Application 2: DMA Influence of filler on mechanical properties   

Nanomaterials are often used as fillers to improve the mechanical behavior of polymer materials.

The mechanical properties of these materials are influenced because of their large interface and the filler network. When mechanical deformation exceeds the linearity limit, the modulus decreases and the loss modulus increases. This property indicates very good energy absorption properties on impact and good damping behavior. The mechanical behavior is non-linear. These types of materials can be used in a wide range of applications where good impact-resistance is required. 

 

In a DMA instrument, this can quickly be tested at the temperature of interest by varying the deformation amplitudes of a specimen, and evaluating the linearity of the mechanical behavior.

 

The diagram shows measurements of the storage modulus gee prime, the loss modulus gee double-prime, and tan delta of a material containing a nanofiller as a function of increasing deformation amplitude. The measurements were performed at room temperature. The curves show that the storage modulus of the material starts to decrease at a deformation of 0.03%, whereas the loss modulus and tangent delta both increase. This indicates that the material is very good at absorbing external stresses.

 

From the mechanical behavior, we can therefore ultimately obtain information about polymer-filler interaction.

Summary

The table summarizes the most important events that can be used to characterize nanomaterial-related substances.

It also shows the techniques recommended for investigating the effects. A box marked red means that the technique is strongly recommended; a box marked blue indicates that the technique can also be used.

 

The most important effects that can be analyzed by DSC are the glass transition, melting, crystallization behavior, reaction enthalpies and kinetics, and the influence of fillers.

 

For TGA, the main applications are content analysis and thermal stability.

 

TMA is normally used to study the expansion or shrinkage of materials.

 

DMA is the best method for characterizing the frequency-, force-, and amplitude-dependent mechanical behavior of materials.

Summary

This slide summarizes the temperature ranges of the METTLER TOLEDO DSC, TGA, TMA, and DMA instruments

 

In general, DSC experiments are performed at temperatures between minus one hundred and fifty degrees Celsius and plus seven hundred degrees. The temperature ranges may be different if special equipment or accessories are used.

 

TGA measurements normally begin at room temperature. The maximum possible temperature is about sixteen hundred degrees.

 

TMA experiments can be performed between minus one hundred and fifty degrees Celsius and plus eleven hundred degrees.

 

DMA samples are measured in the range minus one hundred and fifty degrees Celsius to plus six hundred degrees.         

For More Information on Nanomaterials

Finally, I would like to draw your attention to information about nanomaterial applications that you can download from the internet.

 

METTLER TOLEDO publishes articles on thermal analysis and applications from different fields twice a year in UserCom, the well-known METTLER TOLEDO biannual technical customer magazine. Back issues can be downloaded as PDFs from www.mt.com/ta-usercoms as shown in the middle of the slide.

For More Information on Thermal Analysis

In addition, you can download details about webinars, application handbooks or information of a more general nature from the Internet addresses given on this slide.

Thank You

This concludes my presentation on the Thermal Analysis of Nanomaterials. Thank you very much for your interest and attention.

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