Thermal Analysis of Electronics
On Demand Webinar

Thermal Analysis of Electronics

On Demand Webinar

"Thermal Analysis of Electronics" details the main TA techniques used in the field of electronics

Thermal Analysis of Electronics
Thermal Analysis of Electronics

Electronic engineering deals with electrical circuits that involve components such as transistors, diodes, wires and integrated circuits which are usually mounted on printed circuit boards (PCB boards). The application area and lifetime of these components depend strongly on their thermal and mechanical properties. Thermal analysis is key in the design and production of PCB boards of electronic components.

In this Webinar, we will show how thermal analysis is applied to investigate materials for the electronics industry. We will present some typical examples of samples measured by DSC, TGA, TMA, or DMA.

43:20 min

The webinar covers the following topics:

  • Introduction
  • Properties of electronic components
  • Typical questions
  • Thermal analysis
  • Instrumentation and applications
    - Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
    - Thermogravimetry (TGA)
    - Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)
    - Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)
  • Summary

In the webinar titled "Thermal Analysis of Electronics", we demonstrate how thermal analysis is used to characterize the thermal and mechanical properties of many types of components and products as well as to monitor production processes.

The electronics industry

Electronics deals with electronic devices, systems, and circuits that involve components such as transistors, diodes, wires and integrated circuits. In practical use, these devices are usually mounted on printed circuit boards.

As we will see, thermal analysis can be used to characterize the thermal and mechanical properties of many types of components and products as well as to monitor production processes.

Thermal analysis of Electronics

The most important effects that can be analyzed by DSC are the melting point, melting range and melting behavior. DSC is also used to determine the heat of fusion, the glass transition, and oxidation stability.

TGA measures weight changes. The main applications of TGA are content determination, thermal stability, decomposition kinetics, and the analysis of composition.

TMA is normally used to study the expansion or shrinkage of materials and the glass transition.

DMA is used to determine the modulus and damping behavior of materials.

Thermal Analysis in the Electronics Industry

Slide 0: Thermal Analysis in the Electronics Industry

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Welcome to the METTLER TOLEDO webinar on “Thermal Analysis in the Electronics Industry”.

During the webinar, I would like to describe a number of interesting application examples that demonstrate the use of thermal analysis techniques in the field of electronics.

Typical examples include

- the identification of polymers by means of their glass transition temperatures, crystallization behavior, and melting processes;

- compositional analysis;

- decomposition behavior; and

- the determination of dynamic mechanical properties such as the loss factor or the complex modulus as a function of temperature, frequency and amplitude of deformation.


Slide 1: Contents

This slide lists the main topics I want to cover in the seminar.


I will begin with some comments about important properties of materials used in the electronics industry such as the glass transition, the coefficient of expansion, and flame-retardant behavior. I will also talk about the use of thermomechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis to investigate mechanical properties.

I then want to discuss the techniques used to characterize these properties.

The techniques include:

Differential Scanning Calorimetry, or DSC,

Ultra-fast scanning DSC, the so-called Flash-DSC;

Thermogravimetric Analysis, or TGA,

Thermomechanical Analysis, or TMA

and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, or DMA.


After this, I will present several applications that illustrate how these techniques are used in the electronics industry.

Finally, I want to summarize the different thermal analysis techniques and their applications and list a number of useful references for further information and reading.


Slide 2: Introduction


Electronics deals with electronic devices, systems, and circuits that involve components such as transistors, diodes, wires and integrated circuits. In practical use, these devices are usually mounted on printed circuit boards.


As we will see, thermal analysis can be used to characterize the thermal and mechanical properties of many types of components and products as well as to monitor production processes.


Slide 3: Thermal analysis

So what do we mean by Thermal analysis?

According to the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis, ICTAC, thermal analysis is:

“A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature program”.

The schematic diagram on the right shows a simple linear temperature program.

The lower half of the diagram illustrates the processes that a material undergoes when it is heated and the characteristic properties involved, for example, physical properties such as the heat capacity, expansion coefficient, or modulus. Fully or partially amorphous materials undergo a glass transition. Crystalline or semi-crystalline materials melt. If the sample is exposed to air or oxygen, it will start to oxidize and finally decompose at higher temperatures. We use thermal analysis techniques to investigate these effects.


Slide 4: Thermal Analysis

The slide presents the most important techniques used in thermal analysis, namely:


Differential Scanning Calorimetry, or DSC. This is the most widely used thermal analysis technique. The picture shows a DSC sensor with a crucible containing a sample colored red, and a reference crucible.


Thermogravimetric Analysis, or TGA. This technique measures the mass of the sample as a function of temperature using a highly sensitive electronic balance.


Thermomechanical Analysis, or TMA, is used to measure dimensional changes of a sample. The picture shows the sample support with a sample colored red and the quartz probe.


and finally

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, or DMA, which provides information on mechanical properties. The picture shows one of the different types of sample-clamping assemblies.


I will explain these techniques in more detail in the following slides and describe some application examples.



Slide 5: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

Let’s begin with DSC. This technique allows us to determine the energy absorbed or released by a sample as it is heated or cooled. There are several different types of DSC instruments:

The standard METTLER TOLEDO DSC instruments measure from minus one hundred and fifty degrees Celsius to plus seven hundred degrees Celsius at heating rates of up to three hundred Kelvin per minute. The samples are normally measured in small crucibles made of aluminum, alumina or other materials, using one to twenty milligrams of sample material.


The METTLER TOLEDO Flash DSC 1 expands the maximum heating rate to two million four hundred thousand Kelvin per minute and the maximum cooling rate to two hundred and forty thousand Kelvin per minute. To achieve this, the Flash DSC 1 uses very small samples weighing about one hundred nanograms and no sample crucibles - the sample is in direct contact with the chip-sensor. The ultra-fast heating and cooling rates allow industrial process conditions to be simulated in which materials undergo extremely rapidly cooling.


Another powerful DSC technique is high-pressure DSC or HPDSC for short. The METTLER TOLEDO HP DSC 1 can analyze samples under inert-gas- or reactive-gas-atmospheres at pressures of up to one hundred bar, or ten mega-pascals. This suppresses any undesired vaporization of samples or enables the stability of samples to be studied at increased oxygen pressures.


The schematic curve on the left shows a typical DSC measurement curve of a semi-crystalline polymer. Exothermic effects point in the upward direction and endothermic effects downward. The different effects are numbered next to the curve:

One, is the initial deflection proportional to the heat capacity of the sample of the DSC;

Two, is the baseline where no thermal effects occur;

Three, is a glass transition with enthalpy relaxation;

Four, is cold crystallization;

Five, is melting of the crystalline fraction; and finally

Six, is exothermic oxidative decomposition.


Slide 6: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

The table on the left of the slide summarizes the main analytical applications of DSC.


The technique is used to investigate events and processes in which a change in enthalpy occurs, such as glass transitions, melting, crystallization, chemical reactions, and thermal stability.

The information obtained can be used to identify polymers, investigate the working range of materials, and for compositional analysis. The method can be employed in quality control and for the analysis of raw materials, additives, and fillers, as well as to characterize curing, vulcanization, and other types of reactions.

DSC curves also contain information about the thermal history of a sample.

The stability of materials can be determined using the oxidation induction time or OIT method. Other important applications include the investigation of the curing kinetics of reactive systems, and the influence of stabilizers, plasticizers or other additives. Most of the events involved are related to enthalpy changes that occur when the temperature is increased or decreased.

The picture on the right of the slide shows a view of an open DSC furnace with sample and reference crucibles. The standard crucibles are made of aluminum.

METTLER TOLEDO has also developed versatile optical techniques that enable you to observe changes that occur in a sample while it is heated or cooled. The techniques include DSC-Microscopy, DSC-Chemiluminescence and Photocalorimetry. This latter accessory is used in combination with the DSC and allows you to study the effect of light-curing on crosslinking and network formation in materials.


Slide 7: Application 1: DSC                                                                Curing of an adhesive  

The first DSC application that I want to discuss has to do with the curing or crosslinking of adhesives. This topic is of great importance in manufacturing processes because most components are connected using adhesives or by soldering.

When using adhesives, it is important to know how long a connection must be held in place until it supports itself. Cold-curing adhesives are catalyzed systems that set firmly at low temperatures within a short time.

The upper left diagram in the slide displays three DSC measurements of the exothermic curing reaction of an adhesive. The samples were measured between minus 20 and plus 50 degrees Celsius at different heating rates and with different isothermal end temperatures.

The data was then used in a kinetics program to predict the course of the reaction at different isothermal temperatures as shown on the right of the slide. Most epoxy-based adhesives have hardened and set firmly when the degree of cure has reached 80 percent.

The predicted curve for 25 degrees indicates that it takes about 7.5 minutes to reach 80 percent at room temperature. This was confirmed experimentally by performing an isothermal measurement, shown by the red dashed curve in the diagram.

In a practical application, the performance and effectiveness of the adhesive could always be checked by mechanically testing the particular joint in question.


Slide 8: Application 2: DSC                                                                Isothermal Curing Studies  

This slide illustrates the use of a light-curing adhesive for fixing the read/write head onto the access arm of a hard disk. To ensure optimum bonding, the adhesive is applied and then cured in two steps.


In the first step, UV light-curing is used to ensure that the parts are rapidly and uniformly fixed.

In the second step, thermal postcuring is performed to obtain the desired final bond strength.


METTLER TOLEDO DSC instruments can be equipped with the Photocalorimetry accessory. This allows both the UV-curing- and the thermal-postcuring-reactions to be investigated using the same instrument system.

The DSC is therefore a useful tool for the characterization and optimization of process parameters such as reaction temperature, curing time, and UV exposure.


Slide 9: Application 3: UV DSC                                                         Photocalorimetry

The DSC photocalorimetry accessory allows you to characterize UV-curing systems. You can study photo-induced curing reactions and measure the influence of exposure time, light intensity and temperature on the rate of reaction and material properties.


The upper right inset diagram shows a schematic view of the measuring cell of the METTLER TOLEDO DSC-Photocalorimeter-System.


Both the sample and the reference sides are exposed to the same light intensity. This is done using a branched fiber-optic light guide. One end is connected to a suitable light source. The two exits are fixed in a holder and positioned directly above the sample and reference crucibles of the DSC. The holder can be mounted and demounted in about 2 minutes. This means that the DSC can be used for both photocalorimetric and for normal DSC measurements.


In this experiment, the sample temperature was held constant at one hundred and thirty degrees Celsius. After 6 minutes, the shutter of the light source was opened and the sample exposed to UV light for 15 minutes. The reaction shown by Curve 1 begins as soon as the light irradiates the sample and dies down after a certain time because the reactants have been used up, that is, have undergone conversion.

If the fully converted sample is exposed to light again in the same way as before, no further reaction peak is observed. Curve 2 can therefore be used as a blank. The blank subtraction takes into account that a small amount of the absorbed light is converted to heat. This is the cause of the small step in the DSC curve at the beginning and the end of the measurement under UV light in Curves 1 and 2. The difference between the curves yields the net enthalpy of the crosslinking reaction.


Slide 10: Application 4: UV DSC                                                                       UV light curing

The three measurements displayed in the slide illustrate the relationship between UV-curing and thermal annealing.

The curves show the results of postcuring measurements performed on three samples that had been subjected to thermal curing, UV-light curing, or to both methods.


Curve A was from a sample that had been cured thermally at 120 degrees Celsius for ten minutes. The measured postcuring enthalpy was 133.6 joules per gram. The enthalpy of the fully cured system is 228 joules per gram. The enthalpy of the thermal curing is the difference between these two values, namely 94.4 joules per gram. This means that a 10-minute thermal cure at 120 degrees results in a degree of cure of 41 percent.


Curve B relates to a sample that had been exposed to high intensity UV-light for a short period but with no thermal curing. The degree of cure calculated in the same way yields a degree of cure of 89 percent.


Curve C results from a sample that had been subjected to UV-curing followed by thermal curing. Evaluation of the curve resulted in a degree of cure of about 88 percent.


Comparison of the measurements indicates that thermal postcuring is unnecessary if the parameters for UV-curing are correctly chosen. In this example, UV-curing resulted in almost 90 percent conversion.


Slide 11: Application 5a: DSC                                                                           Lead-free tin solder

In the electronics industry, soldering is the method most frequently used to connect electronic components to the conductive tracks of printed circuit boards. The metal alloys used to do this are called solders.

Up until 2006, alloys of tin and lead were mainly used. From 2006 onward, the use of lead in solders for electrical applications is no longer allowed due to possible risks for health and the environment.

Since the melting point and melting behavior of an alloy is very dependent on its composition, any lead present in a solder can easily be determined by DSC.


The curves in the diagram show the melting behavior of pure lead and pure tin as well as of tin-lead alloys with different compositions.

The two pure metals exhibit sharp endothermic melting peaks at about 232 degrees for tin and 327 degrees for lead.

The melting behavior of the tin-lead alloys is more complex.

For example, the curve labeled Sn 20 is that of an alloy containing 20 weight percent tin. Melting begins as a sharp peak at about 185 degrees. At this temperature, the entire amount of added tin melts with part of the lead in the eutectic ratio of 62:38. On further heating, the remainder of the lead melts continuously up to the liquidus temperature of about 275 degrees at which the alloy is completely molten.


Slide 12: Application 5b: DSC                           Phase diagram of the Sn-Pb system

The melting points of different alloy concentrations can be used to construct a phase diagram.

This is done by plotting the liquidus temperature shown by the red circles, and the eutectic temperature shown by the black squares as a function of the tin, or lead, content.

As we can see, with increasing tin content the liquidus temperature first decreases until the eutectic composition of 62% tin and 38% lead is reached. After this, the liquidus temperature increases as the tin content increases until the melting point of pure tin is reached.


The diagram shows that the smallest amounts of lead have a significant influence on the melting behavior of the tin. This makes DSC an ideal method for checking whether a metal alloy used for a soldering process really is free of lead.


Slide 13: Application 6a: DSC                                                           Intermetallic Phases

A further characteristic of the soldering process is the formation of an intermetallic phase between the solder and the component. This phase is a prerequisite for making a connection in the soldering process.


The growth of intermetallic phases is the result of diffusion processes that take place between the metal constituents of the alloy.

The image on the left side of the slide displays a polished microsection of an intermetallic phase. It shows the contact region between a tin-based solder alloy and copper.

The zone next to the copper phase is the copper-rich Cu3Sn phase (narrator say “see-you-three   ess-en phase”), and next to the solder side, the tin-rich Cu6Sn5 phase (narrator say “see-you-six   ess-en five phase”).


During the soldering process, the thickness of the intermetallic phase increases. Since this is usually more brittle than the metals involved, it must not become too thick because otherwise the solder joint becomes susceptible to mechanical stresses.


A new method to determine the thickness of the intermetallic phase involves the use of DSC measurements instead of the time-consuming method involving the optical measurement of a large number of microsections.


The basic idea of the DSC method is that the temperature of melting of the intermetallic phase containing copper is higher than that of the solder. A comparison of the enthalpies of melting and solidification after a certain annealing time provides information about the proportion of the intermetallic phase formed during the annealing period.


The DSC curve shows the melting and solidification of an intermetallic layer before and after one-hour annealing at 200 degrees. The amount of intermetallic phase formed can be determined from the difference of the enthalpies of melting of the peaks enclosed in the red boxes.


Slide 14: Application 6b: DSC                                                                           Intermetallic phases

The diagram displays a plot of the enthalpy difference before and after annealing as a function of the square root of the annealing time. The graph shows that the relationship is linear.


In order to use the results of the DSC measurements for absolute determinations, the thickness of the samples first had to be determined classically from microsections. This yielded a proportionality factor of 19.48 milli-joules per micrometer for the experimental conditions used.


This new method allows the thickness of intermetallic phases to be determined from DSC measurements and eliminates the time-consuming preparation of a large number of microsections needed for the optical method.


Slide 15: TGA/DSC

Now let’s turn our attention to thermogravimetric analysis, or TGA.

In this technique, the mass of a sample is continuously measured as it is heated in a defined atmosphere. We simply put a few milligrams of the sample into a crucible, heat it, and continuously record the mass change. This allows us to obtain information about the composition of the sample.

The schematic curve on the left shows a typical TGA measurement curve of a polymer. The different effects are numbered next to the curve and explained in the table. These are:

One: heating begins, and volatile components such as moisture and solvent residues vaporize;

Two: decomposition of the polymer;

Three: the atmosphere is switched from nitrogen to air;

Four: carbon black burns.

Five: a residue consisting of ash, fillers, glass fibers, etc remains behind.


METTLER TOLEDO TGA/DSC instruments can also simultaneously measure heat flow and thereby detect effects that involve heat exchange.


Slide 16: Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

The table on the left of the slide summarizes the main analytical applications of TGA.

TGA is used to investigate processes such as vaporization or decomposition. It allows you to measure thermal stability, the kinetics of reactions, and reaction stoichiometry.


The combination of TGA with a mass spectrometer or with a Fourier-transform-infrared-spectrometer allows you to analyze gaseous compounds evolved from a sample. This provides information about the nature and composition of the sample.


The picture on the right shows a view of the open furnace of a TGA/DSC instrument, and in particular the sample holder with positions for the sample and reference crucibles. The standard crucibles are made of alumina.


Slide 17: Application 1: TGA/DSC                                     Time to decomposition

This application describes the determination of the activation energy of a decomposition reaction using dynamic TGA measurements according to the ASTM E1641 test method. This is used in the ASTM E1877 test method for estimating the isothermal long-term stability or thermal endurance of a material.

The sample in this application was a printed circuit board, or PCB. When a PCB is heated to high temperatures, the matrix resin begins to decompose and gases are evolved. This process causes delamination of the layered structure of the printed circuit board and leads to ultimate destruction of the board.

To determine the activation energy of the decomposition reaction according to ASTM 1641, four samples were heated to temperatures well above their decomposition temperatures at heating rates of 1, 2, 5 and 10 Kelvin per minute. The resulting curves displayed in the diagram on the left show that the mass loss was about 30 percent.

The temperature corresponding to a certain conversion, typically 10% of the mass loss up to 380 degrees Celsius, was determined for all four TGA curves. The activation energy to be calculated is independent of the reaction order, which is assumed to be one in the ASTM E1641 method, but only at the beginning of the decomposition reaction.

The activation energy is the parameter needed to determine the lifetime as a function of the isothermal temperature of use according to ASTM E1877

In this case, the lifetime was calculated assuming that the level of decomposition can reach 0.1%, 0.5% or 1.0% before the printed circuit board becomes unusable. The resulting curves are shown in the diagram on the right and are referred to as Iso-Conversion plots. For example, if 1% is set as the limit, the iso-conversion curve shows that the board must not be heated for more than 5 minutes at 250  degrees (a temperature that could occur in a soldering bath).

Iso-Conversion curves and predictions for the lifetime of a material at different temperatures can be used for quality control or development purposes.


Slide 18: TMA/SDTA          

We now move on to thermomechanical analysis, or TMA. This technique measures the dimensional changes of a sample as it is heated or cooled under a defined force or load.

The schematic curve on the left shows a typical TMA curve of a polymer measured in the compression mode using a small sample load. The different effects are numbered next to the curve and explained in the table, namely:

One, expansion below the glass transition;

Two, the glass transition point at which the rate of expansion changes;

Three, expansion above the glass transition; the steeper slope indicates a greater rate of expansion;

Four, softening with plastic deformation.


Slide 19: Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)

The table lists some of the analytical applications of TMA.

The main application is the determination of the coefficient of thermal expansion, or CTE The technique is also excellent for determining glass transition temperatures, for studying softening behavior, and for measuring the swelling of materials in solvents at constant temperature.

The picture on the right shows the typical experimental setup with a ball-point probe resting on the sample specimen.

The following slide describes a specific application example.


Slide 20: Application 1: TMA                                              Delamination of a PCB Board

TMA is one of the best techniques to study the dimensional changes of small samples.

In the case of printed circuit boards, it helps us determine the onset of delamination. This is the temperature at which decomposition of the epoxy matrix resin begins with the release of gaseous products and separation of the layers.

If PCBs are exposed to excessive heat, there is the risk that the individual layers of the board begin to separate. This is hardly visible but is nonetheless sufficiently large to destroy electrical connections. If the temperature of the board is too high, decomposition continues, and gases are evolved that cause further damage.

In this experiment, the 3-mm ball-point probe was positioned directly on the sample. The force applied was 0.05 newtons. The sample was then heated from 30 to 650 degrees Celsius at 20 Kelvin per minute. The TMA curve records the dimensional changes of the printed circuit board up to 500 degrees. The change in the slope of the TMA curve at about 92 degrees corresponds to the glass transition of the matrix resin. The sudden dimensional changes above 323 degrees are due to delamination of the board.

This is shown in more detail in the zoomed curve in the inset diagram. Above about 300 degrees, delamination and degradation begins with the formation of gaseous products.

In another experiment, bromine-containing compounds were clearly identified using evolved gas analysis during the delamination of a printed circuit board that contained a brominated flame retardant in the matrix material.


Slide 21: Application 2: TMA                                                                              Coating of a wire coil

A further application of TMA measurements is for the characterization of the coatings of insulated wires used in coils. Here, the temperature stability is the most important property.


The diagram displays the TMA curve and first derivative TMA curve of a thin wire 70 micrometers in diameter with a 4-micrometer-thick coating.

The curves show that the insulation layer softens at about 187 degrees Celsius and begins to decompose from about 205 degrees onward.

TMA is an ideal technique for determining the thickness of coatings and characterizing their thermal stability.


Slide 22: Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

Let’s now discuss another important thermal analysis technique, namely dynamic-mechanical analysis or DMA.


DMA allows the viscoelastic behavior of a material to be characterized over a wide temperature and frequency range.


The table on the left of the slide shows the different application possibilities of DMA, for example, the measurement of glass transitions, melting, crystallization, viscous flow, and curing processes.


The picture on the right shows a sample installed in a DMA clamping assembly ready for measurement in the bending mode.


Slide 23: Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

The schematic diagram on the left of the slide shows the results of a DMA measurement of a shock-cooled semi-crystalline polymer. The curves display the storage modulus, gee prime (G′), the loss modulus, gee double prime (G″),and the loss factor tan delta as a function of temperature.

The different effects are numbered next to the curve and explained in the table. These are:

One: secondary relaxation, observed as a peak in the tan delta and gee double prime curves; gee prime decreases slightly

Two: the glass transition, seen as a peak in the tan delta and gee double prime curves and as a decrease in the storage modulus curve;

Three: cold crystallization of the polymer. The stiffness and hence the storage modulus, gee prime (G′), increase.

Four: recrystallization accompanied by a peak in tan delta and gee double prime;

Five: melting of the crystalline fraction, with a decrease in the storage and the loss moduli. After melting, the loss factor shows a marked increase. Gee double prime is then larger than gee prime.


Slide 24: Application 1: DMA                                             PCB in 3-point bending mode

This application example shows the measurement of a printed circuit board in the 3-point bending mode. The matrix materials used for such composites consist of filled crosslinked polymers.

The storage modulus of materials like this must be sufficiently high at the application temperature. The determination is best performed in the 3-point bending mode. The value obtained for the Young’s modulus of this printed circuit board was 24.2 giga-pascals.

At the glass transition, the material softens and the modulus decreases to 8.3 giga-pascals. The step in the storage modulus is associated with peaks in the loss modulus and tan delta.


Slide 25: Summary

The table summarizes the thermal analysis techniques recommended for the measurement of various properties in the field of electronics and the information that can evaluated from these measurements.

The most important effects that can be analyzed by DSC are the melting point, melting range and melting behavior. DSC is also used to determine the heat of fusion, the glass transition, and oxidation stability.


TGA measures weight changes. The main applications of TGA are content determination, thermal stability, decomposition kinetics, and the analysis of composition.


TMA is normally used to study the expansion or shrinkage of materials and the glass transition.


DMA is used to determine the modulus and damping behavior of materials.


Slide 26: Summary Instruments

This slide gives an overview of the temperature ranges of the METTLER TOLEDO instruments we have discussed.


DSC experiments can be performed at temperatures between minus one hundred and fifty degrees Celsius and plus seven hundred degrees, depending on the specific cooling and instrument accessories used.


TGA measurements normally begin at room temperature. The maximum possible temperature is sixteen hundred degrees.


TMA experiments can be performed between minus one hundred and fifty degrees and plus sixteen hundred degrees.


DMA samples are measured in the range minus one hundred and fifty degrees to plus six hundred degrees.


Slide 27: For More Information

Finally, I would like to draw your attention to information about application examples that you can download from the Internet.

METTLER TOLEDO publishes articles on thermal analysis and applications from different fields twice a year in UserCom, the well-known METTLER TOLEDO technical customer magazine. Back issues can be downloaded as PDFs at as shown on the slide.

Our “Collected Applications” and “Thermal Analysis in Practice” handbooks contain many other examples and are recommended for further reading.


Slide 28: For More Information on Thermal Analysis

In addition, you can download details about webinars, application handbooks or information of a more general nature from the Internet addresses given on this slide and so ensure that you are always fully up-to-date in thermal analysis.


Slide 29: Thank You

This concludes my presentation on Thermal Analysis in the Electronics Industry. Thank you very much for your interest and attention.

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