Organometallic Synthesis ⏵ Monitor Organometallic Chemistry

Organometallic Synthesis and Chemistry

Understanding and Control of Organometallic Compounds

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Organometallic Synthesis

Organometallic Compounds

Tools to Opimize Synthesis Reactions
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Applicazioni

Control Residual Isocyanate
Process Analytical Technology for Continuous Measurement of NCO

Isocyanates are critical building blocks for high performance polyurethane-based polymers that make up coatings, foams, adhesives, elastomers, and insulation. Concerns over exposure to residual isocyanates led to new limits for residual isocyanates in new products. Traditional analytical methods for measuring the residual isocyanate (NCO) concentration using offline sampling and analysis raise concerns. In situ monitoring with process analytical technology addresses these challenges and enables manufacturers and formulators to ensure that product quality specifications, personnel safety, and environmental regulations are met.

Misura delle reazioni polimeriche
Tecniche e metodi per lo sviluppo dei polimeri sintetici

La misura nelle reazioni polimeriche è fondamentale per produrre materiali conformi ai requisiti, assicurando immediata comprensione, accuratezza, riproducibilità e maggiore sicurezza.

Impurity Profiling of Chemical Reactions
Automated Process Development Strategies for Chemists

Impurity profiling aims at identification and subsequent quantification of specific components present at low levels, usually less than 1% and ideally lower than 0.1 %.

Hydrogenation Reactions
Safe Reaction Monitoring at Elevated Temperature and Pressure

Hydrogenation reactions are used in the manufacturing of both bulk and fine chemicals for reducing multiple bonds to single bonds. Catalysts are typically used to promote these reactions and reaction temperature, pressure, substrate loading, catalyst loading, and agitation rate all effect hydrogen gas uptake and overall reaction performance. Thorough understanding of this energetic reaction is important and PAT technology in support of HPLC analysis ensure safe, optimized and well-characterized chemistry.

High Pressure Reactions
Understand and Characterize High Pressure Reactions Under Challenging Sampling Conditions

Many processes require reactions to be run under high pressure. Working under pressure is challenging and collecting samples for offline analysis is difficult and time consuming. A change in pressure could affect reaction rate, conversion and mechanism as well as other process parameters plus sensitivity to oxygen, water, and associated safety issues are common problems.

Hydroformylation or Oxo Synthesis/Process
Understanding Key Mechanisms and Improve Catalytic Processes

Hydroformylation, or oxo synthesis, catalytic processes that synthesize aldehydes from alkenes. The resultant aldehydes form the feedstock for many other useful organic compounds.

Halogenation Reactions
Key Syntheses in Pharmaceutical and Polymer Chemistry

Halogenation occurs when one of more fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine atoms replace one or more hydrogen atoms in an organic compound. Depending on the specific halogen, the nature of the substrate molecule and overall reaction conditions, halogenation reactions can be very energetic and follow different pathways. For this reason, understanding these reactions from a kinetics and thermodynamic perspective is critical to ensuring yield, quality and safety of the process.

Catalytic Reactions
Accelerate Chemical Reactions With a Catalyst

Catalysts create an alternative path to increase the speed and outcome of a reaction, so a thorough understanding of the reaction kinetics is important. Not only does that provide information about the rate of the reaction, but also provides insight into the mechanism of the reaction. There are two types of catalytic reactions: heterogeneous and homogeneous. Heterogeneous is when the catalyst and reactant exist in two different phases. Homogeneous is when the catalyst and the reactant are in the same phase..

reazioni di sintesi
Per fornire molecole importanti ai settori di ricerca, industria e commercio

Una delle quattro categorie principali di reazioni chimiche, quella delle reazioni di sintesi, è rappresentata da importanti esempi tra le reazioni di sintesi organica, le reazioni chimiche catalizzate, le polimerizzazioni e le reazioni di chimica inorganica/organometallica. Nel caso più semplice, una reazione di sintesi ha luogo quando due molecole si combinano tra loro per formare un prodotto costituito da una molecola più complessa. Spesso, le reazioni di sintesi sono più complesse di così e richiedono una comprensione approfondita della cinetica e dei meccanismi chimici sottostanti, oltre a condizioni di reazione controllate con attenzione.

Progettazione degli esperimenti (DoE)
Un approccio statistico all'ottimizzazione delle reazioni

La progettazione degli esperimenti (DoE) prevede l'esecuzione di esperimenti in condizioni ben controllate e riproducibili per l'ottimizzazione delle reazioni chimiche. I reattori di sintesi chimica sono progettati per effettuare studi di DoE garantendo dati di qualità elevata.

Reaction Mechanism Pathway
Fundamental Understanding of Chemical Reactions and Factors Affecting Them

Reaction mechanisms describe the successive steps at the molecular level that take place in a chemical reaction. Reaction mechanisms cannot be proven, but rather postulated based on empirical experimentation and deduction. In situ FTIR spectroscopy provides information to support reaction mechanisms hypotheses.

Organometallic Synthesis
Understanding and Control of Organometallic Compounds

Organometallic Synthesis, or Organometallic Chemistry, refers to the process of creating organometallic compounds, and is among the most researched areas in chemistry. Organometallic compounds are frequently used in fine chemical syntheses and to catalyze reactions. In situ Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are among the most powerful analytical methods for the study of organometallic compounds and syntheses.

Sintesi di oligonucleotidi
Garantite rendimento, purezza e budget previsto

La sintesi di oligonucleotidi è la reazione chimica mediante la quale i nucleotidi si legano in modo specifico per formare un prodotto con la sequenza desiderata.

What is Alkylation?
For Key Reactions in Organic Chemistry

Alkylation is the process by when an alkyl group is added to a substrate molecule. Alkylation is a widely used technique in organic chemistry.

Epoxides
Key Functional Groups for Synthesis of Polymers and Pharmaceuticals

This page outlines what epoxides are, how they are synthesized and technology to track reaction progression, including kinetics and key mechanisms.

Key C-C Bond-Forming Reactions in Molecular Synthesis

The Suzuki and related cross-coupling reactions use transition metal catalysts, such as palladium complexes, to form C-C bonds between alkyl and aryl halides with various organic compounds. These catalyzed reactions are widely used methods to efficiently increase molecular complexity in pharmaceutical, polymer, and natural product syntheses. PAT technology is used to investigate cross-coupled reactions with regard to kinetics, mechanisms, thermodynamics, and the effect of reaction variables on performance and safety.

Lithiation Organolithium Reactions
Key Reagents for Synthesizing Complex Molecules

Lithiation and organolithium reactions are key in the development of complex pharmaceutical compounds; organolithium compounds also act as initiators in certain polymerization reactions.

Functionalization of Carbon Bonds

C-H bond activation is a series of mechanistic processes by which stable carbon-hydrogen bonds in organic compounds are cleaved.

Organocatalisi
Per una sintesi asimmetrica delle molecole chirali senza l'uso di metalli

L'organocatalisi prevede l'uso di specifiche molecole organiche in grado di accelerare le reazioni chimiche mediante l'attività catalitica.

Reattore continuo a serbatoio agitato (CSTR)
Tecnologia a flusso per la sintesi chimica e biologica

Un reattore continuo a serbatoio agitato (CSTR, Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor) è un serbatoio nel quale i reagenti e i reattanti fluiscono e attraversano il reattore: il prodotto della reazione fuoriesce dal serbatoio.

Control Residual Isocyanate

Isocyanates are critical building blocks for high performance polyurethane-based polymers that make up coatings, foams, adhesives, elastomers, and insulation. Concerns over exposure to residual isocyanates led to new limits for residual isocyanates in new products. Traditional analytical methods for measuring the residual isocyanate (NCO) concentration using offline sampling and analysis raise concerns. In situ monitoring with process analytical technology addresses these challenges and enables manufacturers and formulators to ensure that product quality specifications, personnel safety, and environmental regulations are met.

Misura delle reazioni polimeriche

La misura nelle reazioni polimeriche è fondamentale per produrre materiali conformi ai requisiti, assicurando immediata comprensione, accuratezza, riproducibilità e maggiore sicurezza.

Impurity Profiling of Chemical Reactions

Impurity profiling aims at identification and subsequent quantification of specific components present at low levels, usually less than 1% and ideally lower than 0.1 %.

Hydrogenation Reactions

Hydrogenation reactions are used in the manufacturing of both bulk and fine chemicals for reducing multiple bonds to single bonds. Catalysts are typically used to promote these reactions and reaction temperature, pressure, substrate loading, catalyst loading, and agitation rate all effect hydrogen gas uptake and overall reaction performance. Thorough understanding of this energetic reaction is important and PAT technology in support of HPLC analysis ensure safe, optimized and well-characterized chemistry.

High Pressure Reactions

Many processes require reactions to be run under high pressure. Working under pressure is challenging and collecting samples for offline analysis is difficult and time consuming. A change in pressure could affect reaction rate, conversion and mechanism as well as other process parameters plus sensitivity to oxygen, water, and associated safety issues are common problems.

Hydroformylation or Oxo Synthesis/Process

Hydroformylation, or oxo synthesis, catalytic processes that synthesize aldehydes from alkenes. The resultant aldehydes form the feedstock for many other useful organic compounds.

Halogenation Reactions

Halogenation occurs when one of more fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine atoms replace one or more hydrogen atoms in an organic compound. Depending on the specific halogen, the nature of the substrate molecule and overall reaction conditions, halogenation reactions can be very energetic and follow different pathways. For this reason, understanding these reactions from a kinetics and thermodynamic perspective is critical to ensuring yield, quality and safety of the process.

Catalytic Reactions

Catalysts create an alternative path to increase the speed and outcome of a reaction, so a thorough understanding of the reaction kinetics is important. Not only does that provide information about the rate of the reaction, but also provides insight into the mechanism of the reaction. There are two types of catalytic reactions: heterogeneous and homogeneous. Heterogeneous is when the catalyst and reactant exist in two different phases. Homogeneous is when the catalyst and the reactant are in the same phase..

reazioni di sintesi

Una delle quattro categorie principali di reazioni chimiche, quella delle reazioni di sintesi, è rappresentata da importanti esempi tra le reazioni di sintesi organica, le reazioni chimiche catalizzate, le polimerizzazioni e le reazioni di chimica inorganica/organometallica. Nel caso più semplice, una reazione di sintesi ha luogo quando due molecole si combinano tra loro per formare un prodotto costituito da una molecola più complessa. Spesso, le reazioni di sintesi sono più complesse di così e richiedono una comprensione approfondita della cinetica e dei meccanismi chimici sottostanti, oltre a condizioni di reazione controllate con attenzione.

Progettazione degli esperimenti (DoE)

La progettazione degli esperimenti (DoE) prevede l'esecuzione di esperimenti in condizioni ben controllate e riproducibili per l'ottimizzazione delle reazioni chimiche. I reattori di sintesi chimica sono progettati per effettuare studi di DoE garantendo dati di qualità elevata.

Reaction Mechanism Pathway

Reaction mechanisms describe the successive steps at the molecular level that take place in a chemical reaction. Reaction mechanisms cannot be proven, but rather postulated based on empirical experimentation and deduction. In situ FTIR spectroscopy provides information to support reaction mechanisms hypotheses.

Organometallic Synthesis

Organometallic Synthesis, or Organometallic Chemistry, refers to the process of creating organometallic compounds, and is among the most researched areas in chemistry. Organometallic compounds are frequently used in fine chemical syntheses and to catalyze reactions. In situ Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are among the most powerful analytical methods for the study of organometallic compounds and syntheses.

Sintesi di oligonucleotidi

La sintesi di oligonucleotidi è la reazione chimica mediante la quale i nucleotidi si legano in modo specifico per formare un prodotto con la sequenza desiderata.

What is Alkylation?

Alkylation is the process by when an alkyl group is added to a substrate molecule. Alkylation is a widely used technique in organic chemistry.

Epoxides

This page outlines what epoxides are, how they are synthesized and technology to track reaction progression, including kinetics and key mechanisms.

The Suzuki and related cross-coupling reactions use transition metal catalysts, such as palladium complexes, to form C-C bonds between alkyl and aryl halides with various organic compounds. These catalyzed reactions are widely used methods to efficiently increase molecular complexity in pharmaceutical, polymer, and natural product syntheses. PAT technology is used to investigate cross-coupled reactions with regard to kinetics, mechanisms, thermodynamics, and the effect of reaction variables on performance and safety.

Lithiation Organolithium Reactions

Lithiation and organolithium reactions are key in the development of complex pharmaceutical compounds; organolithium compounds also act as initiators in certain polymerization reactions.

C-H bond activation is a series of mechanistic processes by which stable carbon-hydrogen bonds in organic compounds are cleaved.

Organocatalisi

L'organocatalisi prevede l'uso di specifiche molecole organiche in grado di accelerare le reazioni chimiche mediante l'attività catalitica.

Reattore continuo a serbatoio agitato (CSTR)

Un reattore continuo a serbatoio agitato (CSTR, Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor) è un serbatoio nel quale i reagenti e i reattanti fluiscono e attraversano il reattore: il prodotto della reazione fuoriesce dal serbatoio.

Pubblicazioni

Additional Resources

Spettroscopia FTIR per processi di riduzione di sodio boroidruro sicuri
John O'Reilly of Roche Ireland discusses sustainable Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system using Process FTIR for the safe operation of a sodium...
Air-Sensitive Organometallic Reactions
New automated sampling techniques eliminate sampling challenges with an inline method of taking representative samples from reactions where manual sam...
Reaction Discovery and Development with Kinetics
Professor Ryan Baxter of University California - Merced discusses reaction discovery and development with kinetics. His presentation involves the kin...
Reaction Kinetics Progress Analysis Ryan Baxter
Questo seminario online presenta un'analisi grafica per interpretare le cinetiche inusuali in attivazioni C-H. Viene discusso il metodo "Reaction Prog...
Alkylation Reaction Development
Kevin Stone discusses how Merck Chemical Engineering Research & Development (CERD) leverages process fingerprinting tools in the development of an Alk...
Scale-up of an Oxygen-Sensitive Miyaura Borylation
Christopher Mitchell of Takeda Pharmaceuticals discusses the scale-up of an oxygen-sensitive miyaura borylation.
API Development Using Continuous Flow Technology
Presented by Dr. Frederic Buono of Boehringer-Ingelheim, this on-demand webinar reviews continuous flow process development, including general concept...
In Situ Flow Technology to Continuous Processing - Part II
For continuous flow chemistry processing, FlowIR is a convenient inline analytical tool. The FTIR instrument for real-time monitoring of continuous fl...

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