ABC of Titration – The Theory of Titration
Know How
Guide

ABC of Titration: The Basic Guide of Titration Theory

Know How
Guide

Expand your knowledge by learning the theory and practice of titration.

Titration Theory
Titration Theory

This guide is intended as a first introduction to the titration theory and practice of general and Karl Fischer titration.
The basic knowledge that is needed to understand a titration is given. Different kinds of chemical reactions, indication principles and titration types for general titration are explained and manual titration is compared to automated titration. Finally, some practical tips & hints are given for general and Karl Fischer titration.

Titration is a widely applied analytical technique in various fields like chemical industry food and beverage, electronic industry etc. The titrations are classified according to the chemical reactions occurring and the indication principles used to monitor the reaction. Titration mode EP and EQP and the calculation involved play the crucial role in the overall analysis.

Expand your knowledge by learning the theory and basics of titration. Accelerate competence to define the future.

Also know about:

  1. Advantages of titration
  2. Titration theory
  3. Calculations for complex titrations
  4. Components involved in the titration
  5. Performance Verification of titration
  6. Karl Fischer Titration reactions and theory

Benefit from this booklet and increase your knowledge about titration theory.

Download the handbook to learn everything about the basics of titration. You will find valuable basic information about this widely used technique.

1 Definition of Titration

Titration is an analytical technique which allows the quantitative determination of a specific substance (analyte) dissolved in a sample. It is based on a complete chemical reaction between the analyte and a reagent (titrant) of known concentration which is added to the sample:

Analyte + Reagent (Titrant) = Reaction Products

Watch our video: What is Titration?

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2 Historical development

From manual to automated titration

The classical way to perform a titration is using a graduated glass cylinder (burette). With a tap the titrant addition is regulated manually. A change in color indicates the end of the titration reaction (endpoint).

Titration has experienced a strong development: manual and later motor-driven piston burette…

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3 Fields of use

Titration is a widely applied analytical technique used in various fields.

A few examples are given below:

  • Food & beverages

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4 Advantages of titration

There are several reasons why titration is used in laboratories worldwide. A comparison of manual and automated titration is shown below:

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5 Titration theory

Titrations can be classified according to the chemical reactions occurring and the indication principles used to monitor the reaction.

  •  5.1 Types of chemical reaction

Mainly three different kinds of chemical reactions are used in titration. The reactions are listed below with an example and some typical applications

 

Acid/Base reactions:

HCl + NaOH    ↔     NaCl  + H2O

 

METTLER TOLEDO`s Titration EasyPlus™ Easy pH includes everything needed for a successful acid/base titration.

To get to know the others chemical reactions and much more download the ABC of titration

  • 5.2 Indication principles
    • 5.2.1 Manual titration
    • 5.2.2 Semi or automated titration
  • 5.3 Titration Mode – Endpoint / Equivalence point
    • 5.3.1 Endpoint titration (EP)
    • 5.3.2 Equivalence point titration (EQP)
  • 5.4 Titration types
    • 5.4.1 Direct titration
    • 5.4.2 Blank compensated titration
    • 5.4.3 Back titration

 

6 Titration control

A manual titration is controlled by the operator himself. The titrant addition is regulated manually and the monitoring of the reaction and indication of the endpoint are mostly done visually.

  • 6.1 Manual titration
  • 6.2 Automated titration
    • 6.2.1 Titrant addition
    • 6.2.2 Measured value acquisition

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7 Calculations

The calculation of the final result is based on the consumption of the  titrant as well as the stoichiometry of the chemical reaction between analyte and titrant.

  • 7.1 Stoichiometry and equivalent number
  • 7.2 Result calculation

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8 Components involved in the titration

  • 8.1 Titrant
    The titrant is a solution of a certain reagent with known concentration which reacts with the analyte in the sample. Its nominal concentration is usually expressed in…
    • 8.1.1 Titrant concentration determination
  • 8.2 Sensor
    •  8.2.1 pH sensor and measurements (Acid/Base titrations)
      • 8.2.1.1 pH Sensor and Temperature

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9 Performance Verification of titration

Performance verification is achieved by a standard titration of a reference sample with a known content. Hereby the entire titration procedure including.

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10 Karl Fischer Titration

The Karl Fischer method for water content determination is one of the most frequently used titration methods.

The titration is based on the reaction described by R. W. Bunsen:

I2 + SO2 + 2 H2O → 2 HI + H2SO4

Karl Fischer, a German petro-chemist, discovered that the reaction…

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  • 10.1 Titration principle
  • 10.2 Endpoint indication of a Karl Fischer titraton
  • 10.3 Prerequisites for voulometric Karl Fischer titration
  • 10.4 Drift
  • 10.5 Volumetric Karl Fischer reagents
    • 10.5.1 One-component KF reagent
    • 10.5.2 Two-component KF reagent
  • 10.6 Concentration determination
  • 10.7 Sample handling
    • 10.7.1 Solid samples
    • 10.7.2 Liquid samples
    • 10.7.3 Solubility of sample
  • 10.8 Execution of a volumetric Karl Fischer titration
  • 10.9 Interferences of Karl Fischer titration
    • 10.9.1 Influence of pH
    • 10.9.2 Side reactions

11 Glossary

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